Географический факультет МГУ
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CONTENTS № 1 - 2016

  • Kolosov V.A., Grechko E.A, Mironenko K.V., Samburova E.N., Sluka N.A., Tikunova I.N., Tkachenko T.Kh., Fedorchenko A.V., Fomichev P.Yu. Horizons of research in the geography of world economy (to the 25th anniversary of the Department of geography of world economy)

According to experts, the advent of «world economic transition» and the formation of a multipolar world are closely linked with the loss of globalization advances, which strengthens regionalism, increases diversification and fragmentation of the modern world, creating risks and threats to the world development. In view of this studying the spatial organization of the global economy grows in importance, and at the same time the choice of priorities in the research activities of the Department of Geography of the World Economy, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State Lomonosov University in 2016–2020 becomes more complicated, requiring a new research «ideology». The article summarizes some ideas expressed by the department staff. It specifies that the concept of territorial division of labor needs a significant revision, as well as the defined set of key actors in the world economy and common assumptions regarding their contributions to its development. The latter are first of all the giant developing countries, in particular rapidly growing China – a kind of locomotive entraining other developing states. Further, the impact ofmultinationals on the overall architecture and territorial organization of the global economy becomes more and more tangible. This phenomenon requires the creation of a new scientific area of concern – the corporate geography as a tool of thorough investigation of the transnational division of labor. Changes in the balance of acting forces are closely related to the changes in industry composition and spatial organization of the global economy. The article raises the issues of the development of such processes as tertiarization of the economy, reindustrialization and neoindustrialization, the latter being understood as an evolutionary transition to a knowledge-intensive, high-tech, mass labor-replacing and environmentally efficient industrial production. Basing on preliminary research and proceeding from a relatively new methodological approach, i.e. formation of value chains, the vector of «geographical transition» from developed to developing countries in their creation was designated. This means increasing complexity of the territorial structure of the world economy and the growing importance of semi-periphery. A spatial projection of globalization processes in the form of the emerging «archipelago of cities», which consolidates the international network of TNCs as a supporting node frame of the global economy requires close attention and analysis. The need of integrating the studies in the field of geography of the world economy within Atlas Information Systems (AIS), which belong to the upper class of electronic atlases in terms of their functionality, is noted.

Geography and ecology

  • Malkhazova S.M., Shartova N.V., Timonin S.A. Current situation and the trends of changes of the public health in Russia

The article presents the characteristics of the state of public health in the regions of Russia (in 2002–2012) based on male and female life expectancy and infant mortality. Changes in the state of public health have been identified as compared to 1990–2001 data. Five groups of regions with different state of public health have been determined and analyzed. Coupled analysis of male and female mortality rates according to death causes and a number of environmental and socio-economic factors has been performed for 168 towns with a view to a possible interpretation of current public health.

  • Bolysov S.I., Kharchenko S.V. Urban topography as a factor of comfortable living of the population

The article aims to show the role of urban terrain in the living comfort at cities. Relief controls the formation of modern urban landscapes, as well as their past and future state. The transformation of the surface of urban sites becomes a cause of changes of some physical features of environment. We have studied the aspects of relief impact on the environment which have direct influences on people’s comfort. These aspects are geological and geomorphological hazards; influence of topography on the solar exposure of residential houses, wind distribution in atmospheric boundary layer, transformation of the run-off; terrain effect on noise propagation and the placing of the elements of ecological framework. The paper is based on the different data types. Firstly, it is field data from several cities, i.e. Moscow, Voronezh, Sochi, Kursk, Tambov, Belgorod and other. Secondly, it is published data of some geomorphological and ecological investigations in Russian and foreign cities. Topographical information was obtained from SRTM-data, large-scale maps and plans, digital elevation models created on Ikonos stereo-images. Building and urban zoning information was obtained from situational plans, OpenStreetMap data, master-plans and schemes of urban planning. Materials on urban climate were obtained in the archives of the Russian Bureau of Hydrology and Meteorology. Geomorphological hazards affect the life comfort only in the cities located in active geomorphodynamical areas. Value of topography dissection has effect on the duration of solar exposure of the residential houses and blocks. The duration of solar exposure depends on the gradient and aspect of slopes. Orientation of landforms determines the airing of urban areas in connection to the wind regime.

Transformation of urban terrain and underlying surface determines changes of drainage pattern and geochemical flows. The topography of landscapes and its position in relation to noise sources influence the conditions of sound propagation and noise pollution in the air. Geological and geomorphological features of urban area control the formation of ecological frameworks in the cities. The definition of «geomorphological comfortability» is suggested. Geomorphological comfortability of life is an attribute of relief to create the real condition and/or subjective sense of calm and convenience in the current geomorphological situation through the influence of relief on the general physical and psychical conditions of a person, type of human activities and aesthetic preferences.

  • Methods of geographical studies

  • Yablokov V.M., Tikunov V.S. Principles of elaboration of the internet-based atlas information system for sustainable development of territories

Authors’ vision of the concept of web Atlas Information System (AIS) is stated. Similar to traditional paper atlases, the AIS provides the spatial information under preset themes and extents. The AIS present information in the cartographical form, including the use of multimedia (photo, video and audio). The user of AIS can influence contents, appearance, visualization parameters by simple manipulations, i.e. to carry out so-called customization. The system also allows the users to display and analyze their own geoinformation. The AIS offers the interface easily understandable to inexperienced users and simplifying the process of interaction with difficult mechanisms of data processing. The Web AIS could be classified into two groups depending on the representation, first is a stand-alone program with the functions of updating and inquiries to server bases of spatial and non-spatial data, i.e. an independent desktop application, second is a web application which is on the server and is only online available. Both have their advantages and disadvantages. In the first case the application can work in any case, but with limited functionality; at the same time it is complicated for design and control. Another one completely depends on connection with a network, but at the same time it is more flexible for control and data processing. Today the world-wide web reaches all corners of the globe and the high-quality communication is available practically everywhere. Thus the second way is preferable because of easy control and great opportunities for customization. Development of programming languages and web and server architecture makes it possible to resolve issues of GIS implementation in multimedia structures and vice versa, thereby realizing the concept of web AIS. Basing on the concepts of AIS development and the www-based AIS the idea of web AIS is suggested for creation of the models of sustainable development of territories.

  • Baburin V.L., Zemtsov S.P., Kidyaeva V.M. Methodology of evaluating the potential of the economic-geographical position of Russia’s towns

The favourable economic-geographical position (EGP) of a city is one of the factors of social and economic development. The purpose of the study was to formalize the EGP category and assess the benefits of advantageous position of the Russian cities, including those situated in the Arctic zone. A gravity model was used as a methodological base for EGP formalization. The cities located near St. Petersburg and Moscow agglomerations have the maximum potential of Russian domestic EGP, the potential value uniformly decreasing to the east and north. The maximum potential of the international EGP is concentrated in the cities on the coast of the Japan, Barents, Baltic and the Black seas. The total potential of Russian cities’ EGP increased in the 2000s and shifted towards the southern cities of the Far East due to the economic growth of the Asia-Pacific countries. Among the Arctic settlements the most favourable EGP is in the cities of the European Russia and northern Western Siberia. The cities of the northeastern part are characterized by low values of the potential and its growth rate. The developed method for the estimation of the EGP potential can be widely used in similar studies, including the evaluation of the possible impact of infrastructure projects on urban development.

  • Faddeyev A.M. Vulnerability of transmission systems of Russia, other post-soviet states and European countries to the cascade faults

The article deals with the results of the evaluation of structural vulnerability of power systems of Russia, other post-Soviet states and European countries to the cascade faults. Traditional and up-to-date methods of the topological analysis of the structure of transportation networks are reviewed. A procedure allowing for the evaluation of structural vulnerability of the transmission network graph in case of the random removal of points was developed basing on the complex network analysis. The structural vulnerability of transmission systems under study has been evaluated according to this procedure. Influence of several factors, i.e. topological, political, geographical and historical, on the spatial distribution of transmission systems’ vulnerability was estimated. The structural vulnerability of transmission systems is definitely related to the basic topological and economic criteria. Two different strategies making it possible to maintain the stability of transmission systems were revealed. The choice between these two strategies is determined by geographical and political factors.

  • Emelyanova L.G., Leonova N.B. Analysis of the regularities of spatial organization of plant and animal species ranges using the activity and abundunce indices

Prerequisites, approaches and the state-of-art in studying the spatial organization of animal and plant species ranges (structures of ranges) are discussed. Basing on the maps of the structure of forest lemming (Myopus schisticolor Lilljeborg) range are established using the criteria of the species numbers and activity. Regularities of changing constancy of typical taiga species along the latitudinal gradient are revealed for Linnaea borealis L. and Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W. Schmidt. basing on the indicator of activity. The role of maps of the range structure for identification of ecological-geographical links of species is shown. The role and need of studying the structure of plant and animal species ranges for the solution of scientific tasks in the field of biodiversity conservation and monitoring and for the assessment of available biological resources are emphasized.

Regional studies

  • Anisimov O.A., Kokorev V.A. Climate in the Arctic zone of Russia: analysis of current changes and modeling trends for the 21st century

Data on temperature and precipitation within the Russian Arctic, taken from the different sources, such as weather stations, gridded archives and CMIP5 ESM, are compared. The accuracy of each archive was estimated and the ESMs were tested against the data of observations in the Russian Arctic for the historical period. The ranking was applied to develop an ESMs projection for the 21st century which integrates the results of high-quality models, and to evaluate its uncertainty

  • Romanov A.A., Melikhova E.V. Geography and structure of avifauna in the Eastern Siberia mountain regions

We examined mountain avifauna of the Eastern Siberia, i.e. the Chersky, the Suntar-Khayata and the Sette-Daban ridges, and the Elga Upland. The distribution ranges of 16 birds species were defined more accurately. There are 93 breeding bird species in the region. The maximum species diversity is within the Chersky Ridge (n=71). The mountain taiga belt of the north-eastern Yakutia mountains has 63–64 nesting species (89–97%), the subalpine belt – 13–33 species (20–47%), the alpine belt – 8–15 species (12–21%). The number of species inhabiting a wide range of altitudes (two or more altitudinal belts) decreases from north to south. The avifauna similarity of different mountain ranges is 69% (53%) within the forest belt, 26% (15%) within the subalpine belt, and 52% (35%) within the alpine belt. The bird population density is 521–526 ind./km? in the forest belt, 58–100 ind./km? in the subalpine belt, and 81–178 ind./km? in the alpine belt of the Eastern Siberia mountains.

  • Korablina A.D., Arkhipkin V.S., Samborski T.V. Modeling features formation storm surge in a dynamic system White Sea – mouth area Northern Dvina river

This study analyses the application of mathematical modeling for the examination of specific characteristics of the storm surges formation in the Dvina Bay. The simulation of storm surges in the White Sea was performed with due consideration of the mouth area of the Dvina River. The Surface Modeling System (SMS 11) Aquaveo made it possible to construct an unstructured triangulated mesh for the whole White Sea including two external liquid boundaries: one in the Gorlo at the entrance to the sea and another in the Pinega River mouth. According to ADCIRC model results features of water circulation in the Dvina River mouth area were identified. The numerical experiments have for the first time demonstrated the specifics of storm surge distribution in the delta channels and in the Dvina River mouth. Depending on the wind direction the storm surge has a maximum height either in the river mouth, or in the eastern-most channel.Apart from the level of tides and storm surges the ADCIRC model visualizes the currents speed and directions, while a small-scale mesh allows seeing the structure of the coastal currents in the deltaic channels.

  • Efimova L.Е., Povalishnikova Е.S., Terskaya Е.V., Frolova N.L., Lomova D.V. Hydrochemical state of water bodies in the Valdai National park

Specific features of the regime of the Borovno-Razliv lake-river system are investigated, as well as the mechanism of the flow of dissolved mineral and organic substances and exchange processes between bottom waters and soil during different seasons within the territory of Valdai national park. The actual hydroecological state of water objects is considered taking into account specific conditions of nature and water management in the region. The results of investigations made it possible to suggest the optimum terms of further observations on the lakes of the Borovno-Razliv system and other lakes of the national park.

  • Zalessky N.V., Zyuzin P.V., Koncheva E.O. Reorganization of the spatial structure of a regional public transportation complex (case study of the Permsky Krai)

Deregulation of the public passenger transport market in the Russian Federation has led to the increase of negative imbalances in the sphere of transport servicing of the population. Therefore steps for more effective use of available transportation capacities are taken in certain regions. The basic problems of such concepts are the potential accessibility of settlements and the regulation of the market of provided transport services. The experience of such studies in the Perm Krai is presented. Basing on the spatial analysis technique, the specific features of already available transport servicing of the population of the region are considered, and particular organizational and administrative solutions aimed at its optimization are suggested. Step-by-step measures for the integration of different transportation means towards the transition to the intermodal type of the transport complex functioning are proposed.

Jubilees

  • The 70th anniversary of V.A. Bol’shakov
  • The 70th anniversary of A.V. Evseev

Chronicle

  • Chalov S.R., Dobrolyubov S.A., Pupysheva N.V. Regional Conference of the International Geographical Union «Geography, Culture and Society for Our Future Earth»

New books

  • Goryachkin S.V., Evseev A.V. Textbook in geoecology of oil and gas

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