Geography and ecology
- Yeremina I.D. Chubarova N.E., Alexeeva L.I., Surkova G.V. Acidity and chemical composition of summer precipitation within the Moscow region
Spatial variability of acidity and chemical composition of precipitation within the Moscow city and the Moscow region is analyzed basing on the results of the experiment carried out during summer 2013. The results were compared with the reference data from the MSU Meteorological Observatory where practically each precipitation event during more than 30 years was sampled and analyzed (ion composition and acidity).The synoptic processes were described and the technique of reverse trajectories of particles was applied. It was demonstrated that a little bit higher pH values are typical for the eastern part of the Moscow region. Acid rains could occur both in the centre of the city and in the clean remote areas. The general composition of ions in the Moscow region is characterized by predominance of Ca cations in combination with various anions, i.e. hydrogen carbonates, chlorides and sulfates. Unlike this, for already about 10 years the chlorides are predominant anions in precipitation sampled at the MSU Meteorological Observatory. The ratio of main ions is spatially more stable than the mineralization and the pH values. Generally rather diverse pattern of distribution of mineralization and pH values, particularly within the megapolis area is most probably an indicator of prevailing influence of local sources on the precipitation pollution.
- Kravtsova V.I. Anthropogenic disturbance of dune landscapes of the Anapa sand bar following the high resolution satellite imagery
The Anapa sand bar is an accumulative sand form of coastal relief in the north-eastern part of the Black Sea coastal zone of Russia. It has unique recreational and therapeutic resources and undergoes strong anthropogenic impact. Areas of vegetation cover degradation and dune destruction can be found by using high resolution satellite imagery. Mapping of such areas within different parts of the sand bar has shown that the degree of anthropogenic impact directly depends on the type of recreation activities. It is necessary to use the results of the study in nature protection.
- Kelman Yu.F. Geographical analysis of ethno-cultural diversity of the US population
Composition of the US population is extremely diverse and its geographical distribution is uneven. During recent decades the diversity of population increased considerably. A number of indices are applied to evaluate the diversity of population. However, American studies generally consider only race composition and being among the hispanic Americans. We suggest expanding the application of diversity indices (DI) taking into account the origin of respondents (ethnic and cultural identity) and native countries of first-generation immigrants. Cartographic analysis of phenomena distribution within urban agglomerations (the so-called metropolitan statistical areas — MSAs of the USA) is also worth applying. Application of the new technique made it possible to reveal some characteristic features of the geography of population diversity in the USA. Traditionally diverse areas infringe the country’s territory along the coasts and the southern border. Inland regions are race-uniform but the origin diversity is very high there. Near-border MSA in the southern part of the USA have low values of DI due to the socalled “majority of minorities”. Correlation of data on the degree of diversity for particular MSAs with their population numbers, proportion of immigrants and geographical position made it possible to develop the typology of American MSAs.
- Borisova O.K., Novenko E.Yu. Reconstruction of vegetation and climate during the pre-Mikulin late Ice Age according to pollen data analysis
New reconstructions of vegetation and climate changes in the north-western part of the East European Plain for the period of landscape-climatic system transition from the Middle Pleistocene Ice Age to the Mikulin interstadial are presented. They are based on pollen data analysis of a section of Mga (Mikulin) interstadial marine sediments. The main stages of landscape and climate evolution during the late Middle Pleistocene Ice Age are generally in good correlation with the short-term landscapeclimatic changes during the transition from the Valdai Ice Age to the Holocene. The late Middle Pleistocene Ice Age had two distinct climatic phases, i.e. climate warming correlating with the Zeiphen interstadial in the northern part of Western Europe (analogue of the Belling-Allered warming) and climate cooling, correlating with the Kattegat stadial (analogue of the Late Drias cooling). According to the results of the study the short-term climatic fluctuations during the late Valdai Ice Age were much more pronounced than the similar fluctuations during the late Moscow Ice Age.
- Karlova E.V., Zyuzin P.V. Local urban communities under the situation of transport isolation
The article deals with the influence of collective territorial identity on the emergence of a local community. The core role of the geographical space expressed through the urban physical landscape and the architectural-planning differentiation of the urban environment for the local community formation is also discussed. The geographical isolation of local communities and the barrier function of their borders are analyzed for the vernacular raion of Karacharovo, as well as the possible ways of making local communities more active.
- Pismennaya E.E., Ryazantsev S.V., Tikunov V.S. Geographical features of labor migration in the context of Eurasian integration
The article discusses the features and structure of labor migration from central Asia to Russia within the Eurasian migration subsystem. The study is based on official statistical data and the expert assessment of labor migration flows in the region. The purpose of the study is to reveal labor migration trends and suggest innovative ways to regulate labor migration in the countries of both emigration and immigration. The study has identified new phenomena for labor migration process from central Asia to Russia and Kazakhstan, namely the growing proportion of women, rural people and youth. The existing models of regulating labor migration in the countries of Central Asia are described. We suggest an innovative approach to the regulation of labor migration in the interests of socio-economic development of both donor and recipient countries. It is based on the diversification of migration control measures by economic sectors. We propose to divide the host country policy regarding the regulation of labor migration into two directions. Regulation of labor migration and employment in the sector of “tradable” goods and services should be to the largest possible extent correlated with the trade and investment cooperation. Russia and Kazakhstan could reduce illegal migration and employment in the sphere of agricultural production and processing by increasing their investments into the agro-industry of the countries of Central Asia (which is a traditional sphere of employment for their population), rather than by deportation of illegal migrants. On the other hand, direct labor migration control measures are recommended for application in the sector of “non-tradable” goods and services, such as construction, transport, housing and communal services, trade, etc. The strategy of economic development for these sectors should be based on the concept of the growing labor productivity and decreasing inefficient employment.
- Ogureeva G.N., Bocharnikov M.V. Diversity of boreal forests in the mountains of Southern Siberia and Mongolia
Cenotic diversity of boreal forests at their southern border is predetermined by their actual location within a long belt following the southern border of the boreal zone stretching from the Western Altai Mountains and Eastern Kazakhstan to the Khentii Mountains in Mongolia and North-Eastern China. Characteristic features and diversity of forests depend on their location in different mountain systems and on differently oriented mountain slopes. Forests form complex spatial combinations with steppes and tundras at different altitudes depending on the degree of the forest belt development within a particular mountain system. Application of modern GIS-technologies, interpretation of space imagery and general knowledge of forests made it possible to map geographical variants of expositional boreal forests at their southern border. Bioclimatic conditions of boreal forest evolution were determined and the cenotic diversity was identified for each particular geographical variant. Relative areas of forests within altitudinal zones were calculated. A map of the present-day forest cover was compiled for the territory under study. The interpretation of forests through the heterogenic structures of vegetation cover was carried out for the altitudinal zones of the central Khangai Mountains.
- Kalinichenko A.V. Spatial model of ecotourism development in South-Western Crimea
South-Western Crimea has a great potential for ecotourism development. A spatial model was elaborated using GIS-technologies to identify, visualize and analyze key areas which are prospective for ecotourism development in thee region. The model could be applied in planning of tourism development to balance nature protection and recreational activities.
- Kozyreva M.S. Geochemical parameters of the ursul depression landscapes (Central Altai Mountains)
A program of landscape-geochemical investigations for the anthropogenic-ecological assessment of territories is suggested. Hydrochemical and biogeochemical features of landscapes within the Ursul River basin (Central Altai Mountains) were revealed. The hydrochemical sampling data prove that all sources of drinking water in the settlements under study meet the State Standards (GOST) for mineralization and water hardness. However, there are local anomalies with the excess of maximum permissible concentration for lead and cadmium. Metallogenic features of the region are favorable for cadmium accumulation both in soil and in water. Low mobility of cation-forming elements, such as Mn, Zn and Cu, in mountain steppe soils results in their low concentration in forage plants.
- Vinogradov I.V. Territorial organization of the tertiary sphere in the town of Tver
The territorial organization of tertiary sphere in the town of Tver was analyzed. Basing on the data collected during on-site investigations a map of service facilities network was compiled for two territorial levels, i.e. administrative and planning raions. Spatial differentiation of service facilities is discussed. Territorial complexes of services were subdivided into two groups (linear and nodal); and 2 groups of disperse elements of service facilities network were differentiated (local clusters and isolated elements). Principal problems of the tertiary sphere development are described and the ways of their solution are suggested.
- Knizhnikov Yu.F. Remote sensing and the problems of aerospace training of the university students specializing in cartography
Aerospace training of cartographers at the Department of Cartography and Geoinformatics of the MSU Faculty of Geography includes several educational disciplines and practical training in field interpretation. The Interpretation of Aerospace Imagery is to be considered the main course requiring not less than 50% of time assigned for the whole aerospace training at the department. As a general rule, new courses for master students should be developed by researchers of the department basing on their investigations. The aircraft-based training in aero-visual interpretation of space imagery is worth introducing at the Faculty of Geography.
- The 75th anniversary of Artur Nikolaevich Chilingarov
- The 70th anniversary of Alexander Nikolaevich Gennadiev
- The 60th anniversary of Andrey Vladimirovich Bredikhin
- Emil Borisovich Valev (22.01.1921–17.07.2014)
- Vladimir Alexandrovich Nikolaev (25.02.1925–17.08.2014)
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