Theory and methodology
- Rychagov G.I.The Khvalyn stage in the history of the Caspian Sea
Data concerning the Khvalyn stage in the history of the Caspian Sea are analyzed and the conclusions are as follows. First, the majority of stratigraphic-paleogeographical schemes for that period of time are based on two methods, i.e. biostratigraphy and absolute geochronology. Second, application of 14C and 230TH/ 234U methods for dating Khvalyn sediments from terrestrial samples cut down their age. This contradicts the paleogeographical events of that stage of the Caspian Sea evolution and distorts the schemes of correlation between the Caspian Sea transgressions and the glacial periods within the northern part of the East European Plain. Third, more reliable data on the paleogography of the Khvalyn stage could be obtained by using the geomorphologic analysis based on the investigation of particular material objects, i.e. relief and sediments, with due regard to the general geographical regularities.
- Makhrova A.G.Specific features of stadial development of the Moscow agglomeration
In the light of the concept of stadial evolution of urban agglomerations the processes taking place in the Moscow agglomeration were studied in relation to the situation in agglomerations of developed and developing countries. Data on the dynamics of population numbers and migrations within the core and suburban zones are given with particular emphasis on seasonal suburbanization and desurbanization. The processes of social and economic transformation of suburban areas are analyzed and the elements of post-urbanization are revealed. Particular stages of urbanization in the Moscow agglomeration are behind the largest agglomerations of developed countries and have some specific features. Elements of the several stages are present at the same time, thus resulting in a combination of different types and form of suburban, exurban and post-suburban areas (seasonal and permanent, urban and rural, residential, industrial, commercial, etc.). By analogy with a “layered city” notion, which includes several spatial structures forming the city as a whole while following their own ways of development, the Moscow agglomeration could be called a “layered agglomeration” which is the most adequate description of the present-day model of its development.
Geography and ecology
- Grechushnikova M.G., Puklakova N.G., Edelshtein K.K. Possible transformation of the hydrological regime of the Tsimlyansk reservoir under climate warming
Changes in the hydrological parameters of the Tsimlyansk reservoir (flowage, ice and thermal regime, water mineralization, water stratification, etc.) were calculated for the most unfavorable water supply scenario (decreasing annual runoff and high water runoff values).
Methods of geographical studies
- Sysuev V.V. Geo-radar investigation of the poly-scale structures in landscapes (case study of the Smolensk-Moscow highland)
GPR methods were applied to sound the structure of soils and sediments of the Valdai Upland (landscapes of the edge zone of the last glacial period) and the Smolensk-Moscow Upland (secondary moraine landscapes). Application of the OKO ground penetrating radar equipped with multi-frequency antenna heads (operating frequencies of 35-100, 700 and 250 MHz) made it possible to investigate the poly-scale 3D structure of soils and sediments, as well as the hydrogeological structure of the drainage basin of the Loninka River.
- Zimin M.V., Tutubalina O.V., Golubeva E.I., Rees G.U. Ground spectrometry of Arctic plants for the interpretation of space imagery
Technique of ground spectroradiometry using a four-channel spectrometer and a multi-channel hyperspectroradiometer is described. The factors influencing spectral signatures of plants are analyzed. The technique of measurements for the creation of terrestrial spectral libraries is suggested.
- Varyushin P.S. Methods of studying the geography of political preferences of the US population
During the 20 th century several groups of methods were used to study the territorial variability of political preferences in the United States. Descriptive methods were at the origins of this research but they are often subjective. Cartographic methods allow representing the interconnections of phenomena, but their application is rather time-consuming, particularly for the large-scale investigations. The use of mathematical methods was a breakthrough in the electoral geography making it possible to parameterize the results of research and make them more objective. At the same time these methods are highly dependent on statistical data quality and often do not reflect the whole situation. However integration of methods belonging to different groups allows creating rather clear representation of processes occurring in the electoral geography of a country or a region. Despite some limitations, the main one being the two-party system, untypical for most countries of the world, the experience of studying the US political landscape could be useful for the studies of political geography in other
- Samburova E.N. Regional disparities in the present-day development of China’s economy
The problems of historically formed regional disparities in the economic development of China are discussed. The extent and dynamics of regional “inequality” are analyzed. The role of internal and external factors of economic development during the post-reform period, which deepen or smooth out regional disparities, is analyzed. The trend of reducing degree of regional disparities is the result of financial and economic crisis, regional policy of the PRC leaders and the growth of labor costs in the coastal provinces of China.
- Gorokhov S.A. Religious fractionalization as a factor of regional economic development in the modern world
The article deals with specific features of the religious structure of population in particular regions of the world. The author suggests a modified index of confessional fractionalization to determine the degree of regional religious heterogeneity. Of particular importance is the analysis of how the level of confessional fractionalization influences the per capita value of the gross domestic product.
- Sudakova N.G., Nemtsova G.M., Glushankova N.I. Paleogeographical regularities of spatial and temporal variability of the composition of moraines in the central part of the East-European plain
Regional and evolutional features of the formation of material structure of moraines are discussed. Schematic maps and a model demonstrating the spatial and temporal trends in the variability of the amount of terrigenous, authigenic, clay minerals and carbonate content of moraines were compiled basing on the system analysis and generalization of representative analytical data. Sector-dependent tendencies in the variability of moraine composition which are related to ice flows originating from different remote, transitional and local provinces are revealed, as well as age-dependent changes in the composition of moraines. The regularities of the glacial lithogenesis are essential for paleogeographical reconstructions and also for reliable inter-regional correlation of glacial horizons.
Geography of the cities
- Zemlyansky D.Yu., Lamanov S.V. Scenarios of development for the single industry towns in Russia
Technique of elaboration of the operational models of development for the mono-functional towns in Russia (typology of towns, scenarios of development for particular types, management mechanisms for the optimal scenarios) is suggested. The technique was tested in the process of field studies in 18 mono-functional towns where the Basic Element Co is operating
- Pilka M.E.B., Sluka N.A. Siting of the offices of largest transnational corporation in the global cities of the USA
The initial hypothesis about the nodal role of the largest US agglomerations in the spatial structure of transnational business and the core importance of just several centers (with New-York being an absolute leader) for the foreign economic cooperation of the country at the level of transnational corporations is proved by the analysis. Geography of the largest world economies represented in the global cities of the USA is described, as well as the factors governing the location of foreign corporations. A dual model of office location is based on the combination of business interests, specific features and specialization of companies and potential, resources and prospects of a city.
- Imangalin A.F. Forecast of the siting of shopping centers in large Russian agglomerations
The state-of-the-art and the prospects of modern shopping centers development in large Russian agglomerations are discussed. Dynamics and specific features of their development for the nearest future are analyzed. Shopping centers are classified according to their size; the types of shopping centers in urban agglomerations are identified. Four groups of agglomerations are identified according to the type of development and location of shopping centers. Possible changes of the groups and their composition by 2015 are forecasted. Totally 271 existing shopping centers and 29 ones under construction were analyzed for 13 largest agglomerations (excluding Moscow and St.-Petersburg). Methods of evaluating the location of different types of objects are discussed and the instruments for forecasting the siting of large shopping centers in a city based on mathematical and geoinformational modeling are suggested. Siting of potential commercial objects is forecasted using the iterative approach with application of the Huff model. Commercial and social efficiency of potential projects is analyzed. The results of the study could be useful for social economic investigations of cities and in urban planning.
- The 80th anniversary of Balis Balio Serapinas
- In the Dissertation Сouncils of Geographical faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University for 2013
- Chalova E.R., Skaryatin V.D. Mouths of the Russian rivers on space images