Географический факультет МГУ
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CONTENTS № 2 - 2014

Theory and methodology

  • Kuznetsova O.V. Typology of factors governing the social-economic development of Russian regions

Factors governing the social-economic development of Russian regions are discussed with the aim to take account of their diversity and arrange them hierarchically. Systematization of available analytical data on the regularities and factors of regional development and their typology made it possible to suggest a model of a pyramid of factors similar to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

  • Golubev V.N. Formation of ice cover on fresh-water reservoirs and water courses

Role of the state of water surface (quiet or dynamic), associated hydrometeorological phenomena and processes, and the source of crystallization centers for ice cover formation and spreading as well as for the structure of its surface layer is described. Systematization of thermodynamic conditions of ice cover formation (according to field observations and analytical studies) made it possible to identify three principal types of the structure of the surface layer of ice cover. Changes of ice structure in the underlying strata depend on the variations of thermodynamic conditions on the ice cover surface, as well as the superposition of thermal conductivity anisotropy and that of ice crystals growth rate.

Geography and ecology

  • Avessalomova I.A., Dyakonov K.N., Savenko A.V., Kharitonova T.I. Geochemical transformation of post-ameliorative landscapes

Principle trends of the transformation of hydro-ameliorative landscapes during the 20-year-long period of drainage system degradation were revealed basing on the results of the long-term investigations. Changes in landscape-geochemical processes and conditions of elements migration are described. Temporal variations of hydrochemical parameters and lower mineralization of ground and drainage waters were recorded in the post-ameliorative landscapes as compared with the period of active functioning of the drainage system. Factors leading to the higher or lower intensity of water migration of elements were identified

Regional studies

  • Dobrolyubov S.A., Klimchuk E.I. Sverdrup transport in the North Atlantic

Monthly values of the latitudinal mass transport in the North Atlantic based on the Sverdrup relation are analyzed. A continuous wind stress dataset NOC v 1.1 with a spatial resolution of 1´1° for the period of 1980-2005 is used as a basic data. Estimates of the Sverdrup transport values in the area of subtropical gyre showed the maximum of mean annual Sverdrup transport values (-29,8´10 6 m 3/s) on 33 °N. The quasi-latitudinal (zonal) barotropic wind transport values were calculated as a summation of maximum Sverdrup transport values in subtropical and subpolar gyres, and their seasonal and interannual variability was examined. The correlation analysis of the annual values of zonal transport and NAO index indicates a significant inverse correlation ( r = -0,6), which confirms the Bjerknes’ compensation theory suggesting that transports in the ocean and the atmosphere covariate in an out-of-phase manner in the North Atlantic region.

  • Krayushkin E.V., Demidov A.N. General changes of thermohaline parameters of intermediary and bottom water masses in the South Atlantic

Analysis of the data of repeated transatlantic sections in the South Atlantic showed the general warming of water masses below 500 m and the multidirectional centennial changes of mean temperature and salinity of principal water masses in the region. The mean temperature of the Antarctic intermediary water mass in the South Atlantic increases while that of the Antarctic bottom water mass decreases since the beginning of the century. Optimal parameters for the interpolation of mean temperature and salinity values measured during the transatlantic expeditions in the beginning and the middle of the 20th century are determined.

  • Porotov A.A., Myslivets V.I., Zinko V.N., Zinko A.V., Gainanov V.G., Zverev A.S. Evolution of coastal relief of the Kerch Strait (the Kamysh-Burun Cape area) during the Late Holocene (according to geoarchaelogical and acoustic survey data)

New data on the lithological-facial structure and geochronology of coastal deposits, as well as specific features of the acoustic structure of the upper part of marine deposits within different structural-geomorphologic sections of the coast are discussed. Evolution of relief of the western part of the Kerch Strait coast during the Late Holocene is reconstructed. Evidence of the changing sea level during the recent 5 thou years in the lithological-facial and acoustic structure of marine deposits was identified.

  • Gurinov A.L., Lukashov A.A., Rogov V.V. Specific features of granite weathering in the Transbaikal region

Particularly intensive weathering of massive rocks in the mountains of the north and south-east Transbaikal region has a direct impact on all landscape components. Previously it was supposed that harsh climate of the Transbaikal region provides for the total dominance of physical weathering processes. Detailed study of the samples of weathered granite using the LEO 1450 scanning electronic microscope has shown that the destruction of rocks takes place under the influence of an interacting complex of factors. Under the saprolite-type weathering initial fissures in the rock are formed through the cryogenic breaking of quartz which is the least stable mineral in the permafrost conditions. Along the physical factors of granite weathering (cryogenic and thermal) there are also the chemical ones, i.e. the hydrolysis of feldspars which becomes more intensive if living organisms and the products of their metabolism are present.

  • Antonov E.V., Denisov E.A., Efremova V.A., Faddeev A.M. Actual problems of urban shrinkage development in the north-west of the Komi Republic

Actual problems of urban shrinkage were investigated for the north-west of the Komi Republic. Theoretic approaches to the analysis of the problems of depressive urban settlements are discussed. Integrated indices of social and economic situations in the cities were calculated. Growing disproportions of socio-economic development between the cities of the Komi Republic are revealed. Specific features of urban shrinkage in the towns of Vorkuta, Inta, Pechora and Ukhta are described basing on the results of field surveys.

  • Savoskul M.S., Mozgunov N.A., Pivovar G.A. Social-economic transformation of small towns of the Non-Chernozem region (case study of the Kaluga oblast)

Socio-economic transformation of small towns of the Non-Chernozem region was studied in the Kaluga oblast. Historical-genetic types of towns are described, as well as the dynamics of urban population numbers after 1991 and the transformation of demographic and migration situation in 2008-2010. Small towns of the Kaluga oblast were classified with account of their socio-economic transformation and changes of prevailing urban functions. Factors governing the trends of development of small towns in the Kaluga oblast are discussed.

Jubilees

  • Jubilee of Nataliya Andreevna Volodicheva

  • Jubilee ofTamara Alekseevna Yanina

  • The 90th anniversary of George Ivanivich Rychagov

  • The 75th anniversary of Valerian Afanasievich Snytko

  • The 60th anniversary of Sergey Ivanovich Bolysov

  • The 60th anniversary of Juriy Kirillovich Vasilchyuk

Chronicle

  • Rybalsky N.G., Tikunov V.S. Forum “The Arctic - Territory of Dialogue”

New books

  • Kislov A.V. Manual on the geochemistry of stable isotopes in the atmosphere and hydrosphere

Версия для печати

Полезные ресурсыФотогалереяСотрудникам

Диссертации

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Публикации

География: География России: Природа и население. 8 класс
Алексеев А.И., Низовцев В.А., Ким Э.В.
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