To the centenary of birth of N.A. Gvozdetskiy
Theory and methodology
Specific features of river-sea connection in the Volga River mouth area are discussed. It is shown that at the Caspian Sea level below -27 m BS hydraulic connection between delta watercourses and the sea is disrupted, and the further sea level fall has no pronounced impact on the hydrological processes in the delta area. Such abnormal situation in the Volga River mouth area radically differs from other river mouths in Russia and in the world. It could be explained by the presence of a vast shallow buffer zone within the Volga River mouth nearshore. Causes of abnormal hydraulic conditions in the Volga River mouth are revealed; unknown water levels at the delta coastline are calculated, as well as level differences between the delta coastline and the sea. River flow and backwater components were identified for the water level oscillations in delta channels and the nearshore shallow zone during the recent rise of the Caspian Sea level. Principal hydrological, morphological and ecological effects of the abnormal river-sea connection in the Volga River mouth area are described.
Models of partial and integral evaluation of ecological risk for natural-economic systems are discussed, as well as their application for the estimation of the total erosion risk on the lands of river watersheds in the Voronezh oblast.
Geography and ecology
137Cs concentrations and total volumes are analyzed in the sediments of a floodplain-terrace complex sampled at four test sites in the valley of a small river which drains the area with the different levels of Chernobyl-induced contamination. Specific features and governing factors of the spatial pattern of 137Cs contamination are identified both within the sampling sites and along the river course. The amount of 137Cs-contaminated sediments taken away beyond the initial fallout zone is evaluated.
The actual situation with environmental offences is discussed including the principal causes of environmental crimes and the risk they pose to the public. Possible application of the cartographic method for studying regional aspects of different environmental crimes is analyzed.
Geography of world economy
Principal aspects of the global expansion of multinational corporations at the modern stage of evolution of the world economy are discussed. The expansion is realized through direct foreign investments which augmented considerably during the end of the XXth - the beginning of the XXI century and profoundly transformed the world economy. Changes in the geography of accumulated direct investments are described by countries and by macroregions; the importance of certain types of investments for the world economy as a whole is discussed.
Methods of geographical studies
Particular features of a stereo model observed at the PC monitor depend both on the properties of original stereo images and the human vision system and the position of images in the process of viewing. From the geometrical point of view the stereo model observed by an interpreter is lesser than the reality and its shape is regularly deformed. Both aspects should be taken into account during visual interpretation process.
Complex system of cartographic support of the activities of nature protection areas (NPA) is discussed as a particular functional line of thematic mapping which represents applied aspects and regularities of relations in the nature-society system by techniques of cartographic imaging and modeling. The theoretical concept is stated, a principal scheme of the cartographic support of NPA activities is suggested which is a basis for the classification of cartographic materials necessary for different categories of NPA. The structure and content of principal cartographic blocks supporting different types of NPA activities are described; the techniques of presenting materials for different types of activities and categories of NPA users are demonstrated.
New methods of mapping marine and river transport under current economic situation and increased awareness of uneven transportation infrastructure in Russia are discussed. Procedures of information collection and integration are described, as well as the designing and compilation of a statistical database. Principles of producing a series of maps using cartographic and mathematical methods (including the multidimensional statistical analysis) are suggested. It seems reasonable to apply geoinformation technologies for both statistical and synthetic mapping techniques.
Changes of sedimentation environments, vegetation and climate within the southern part of the Taman Peninsula for the last 7000 years were reconstructed using the results of geological-geomorphologic, lithological and palynological investigations as well as 14C dating of lagoon, alluvial, lacustrine, marsh and subaerial deposits exposed by boreholes in different parts of the Kuban Deltaic Plain.
Regular spatial changes of river channel factors, conditions of channel formation and consequent distribution of different morphodynamic types of river channel in the Russian part of the Amur River basin are analyzed (in the eastward direction). Regional differences in channel-forming water discharge governed by water regime and sediment flow are revealed. The role of flow power in the formation of channels of different morphodynamic types is discussed, as well as the influence of topography and the shift from river incision to sediment accumulation in the plain areas of the basin and the most of the Lower Amur River area.
History of science