Theory and methodology
· Baklanov P.Ya. Structuring of territorial socio-economic systems
Each settlement which is chosen as a reference or a central point could be characterized by a territorial socio-economic system representing a spatial combination of all settlements directly connected with the central one by transportation routes. The central points have quasi-constant elements oriented at the inner local markets and quasi-variable ones oriented at the outer markets. A structural-functional scheme of settlements is suggested. The elements of potential structure, i.e. unemployed population, production and transportation reserves, are identified, thus providing for the assessment of possible structural shifts within the system.
Geography and ecology
· Sokolov D.I. Changes of water oxidation and color under the influence of a water reservoir
Quantitative assessment of self-purification capacity in terms of water oxidation and color has been performed for three water reservoirs with different flowage parameters, namely Ivankovskoye, Uchinskoye (both of the Volga River water supply system) and Mozhaiskoye (of the Moskva River water source). Role of particular water reservoir processes in the overall decrease of these parameters is evaluated basing on the observation data for the Mozhaisk hydrological study area.
- Nemirovskaya I.A., Polyakova A.V., Yukhimuk V.D.Distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in the coastal waters of the north-eastern part of the Black Sea
The results of the study of hydrocarbons in surface waters of the Blue and Gelendzhik bays of the Black Sea in relation to the content of lipids and chlorophyll and the concentration and composition of suspended matter are presented. Background values of hydrocarbons concentrations, composition of alkanes and the correlation with the distribution of chlorophyll and suspended matter indicate the predominately autochthonous origin of hydrocarbons in water areas under study.
- Timofeev I.V., Kuzmenkova N.V. Spatial distribution of 137Сs in soils of the Ozersk town (Chelyabinsk oblast)
The results of 2010 soil-geochemical survey in the Ozersk town (Chelyabinsk oblast) are presented. Content and distribution of 137Cs in the upper layer of urban soils were evaluated and the natural and anthropogenic factors of its accumulation were identified. Average concentrations of the radionuclide are above the background values. Maximum accumulation was recorded for the undisturbed soils under natural forests, where average concentration is 164 Bk/kg. The principal factor influencing 137Cs differentiation is the functional zonality of urban landscapes. In general the radioactive state of soils within the urban territory is safe with contamination values averaging 7.5% of the RF maximum permissible one.
Methods of geographical studies
- Bolshakov V.A., Prudkovsky A.G. Improvement of the orbital-climatic diagram as an instrument for interpretation and analysis of the Pleistocene paleo-climatic records
The basic principles of the orbital-climatic diagram (OCD) designing are described. The OCD qualitatively represents global climatic influence of the orbitally-induced insolation variations during the past 1.24 mln years. A method of the OCD improvement is suggested on the basis of the parametric resonance mechanism which was applied earlier to explain the Mid-Pleistocene transition phenomenon. The new OCD shows better correspondence with the empirical paleoclimatic data than the previous one. This fact is another confirmation of the validity of the parametric resonance mechanism.
- Belozerova E.V., Chalov S.R. Assessment of river water turbidity using the optic methods
Possible assessment of suspended sediment concentrations S (g/m 3) based on turbidity data T (NTU) is discussed. Regional correlations between S and T values are reasoned. Basing on the data from 30 rivers of Russia five groups of rivers were identified which are different in S = f(T ) regression. The linear approximation reflects the influence of the average diameter of sediment particles on slope ratio.
- Stegnienko A.S. Destination images of Japanese prefectures: methods of analysis
Over the last few decades destination images have become a vital instrument of regional development. Nevertheless in modern geographical sources the concepts of destination image and geographical image still lack conventional definition and standardized methods of analysis. A functional approach to the identification of destination images is suggested, as well as a method of their investigation based on the analysis of travel publications. The results of the approach application for the study of Japanese prefectures are discussed.
- Sudakova N.G., Antonov S.I., Vvedenskaya A.I. Structure of the glaciation edge zones in the central part of the East European Plain
Actual problems of reconstructing the structure and dynamics of glaciation edge zones in the central part of the East European Plain which are of particular paleogeographical, stratigraphical and geoecological importance are discussed. Combined analysis of heterochronous edge zones made it possible to compile a new schematic map of the radial-marginal structure of edge formations of the Moscow and Kalinin ice ages. On the basis of the complex investigation of controversial issues using lithological-geomorphologic, biostratigraphic and geochronological data the limits of the Moscow and Kalinin ice sheets were defined more exactly, the stages of the Moscow Ice Age were justified and the heterochronous stages were correlated for different regions.
- Kuricheva E.K. The role of large-scale housing projects in the development of Russian agglomerations
Forty largest housing projects in Russia each dealing with construction of more than 500 000 m 2 of real estate are identified and analyzed. They account for 10% of the housing construction in Russia and up to 35% in major metropolitan areas. Most of the projects are in the metropolitan areas of Moscow and St.-Petersburg, thus providing for the formation of “city regions”. The analysis reveals the problems of metropolitan areas management under the influence of various factors, i.e. decisions of authorities, public regulation of urban development and commercial interests of business structures.
- Semenkov I.N., Aseeva E.N., Terskaya E.V. Geochemical structure of forest-steppe catenas of a balka drainage area in the Upa River basin
Lateral distribution of labile forms of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn in a monolithic balka microarena with cultivated leached and podzolized chernozems and meadow-chernozem soils in the central part of the Srednerusskaya Upland. The analysis of fraction composition made it possible to identify mobile (Mn, Pb), slightly mobile (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and relatively inert (Fe, Cr) metals. Soil-geochemical multi-structure and variability of the lateral distribution of metals are described. Rather uniform lateral distribution was recorded for total metals, while that of labile forms showed more contrasts.
- Arkhipova A.A., Deev M.G. Present-day iceberg runoff to the Northwest Atlantic
The observation data and available publications are used to explore the process of iceberg drift to the area of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The actual total amount and monthly values of iceberg runoff are estimated.