Theory and methodology
- Yanina T.A. Evolution of the Pont-Caspian environment under the global climate change during the Late Pleistocene
Evolution of the Caspian and Pont environments was analyzed in comparison, and both general and specific features of their development under multi-scale and multi-directional changes of climate during the Late Pleistocene were identified. Vast cold transgressions of the Caspian and Caspian-type transgressions of the Pont (not exceeding its present-day level) took place synchronously during the cold (glacial) epochs. Maximum level of the Caspian transgressions was controlled by the Manych sill depth; for the Caspian-type transgressions of the Pont it was the Bosporus sill depth that controlled their maximum level. Warm transgressions of the Caspian (below the sea level) and marine transgressions of the Pont (maximum position) took place during the periods of climate warming (interglacial epochs). Warm transgressions of the Caspian depended mainly on the interglacial endothermal (cool and moist) phases, while marine transgressions of the Pont correlated with the interglacial transgressions of the World Ocean. Cold transgressions of the Caspian and Caspian-type transgressions of the Pont took place asynchronously with transgressions of the World Ocean.
- Nikolayev V.A. Landscape’s memory
The structure of present-day landscapes is capable to store evidence of their past evolution for rather long periods of time, as both the composition of geo-horizons and the morphological structure of a landscape. Evolutionary heritage of present-day landscapes is a powerful factor influencing their stability and dynamics. Therefore investigation of naturalistic and sociohistorical memory of landscape is among the most important lines of genetic landscape science.
Geography of world economy
- Sintserov L.M. Crisis of global economic ties in the middle of the 20th century
The state of the world trade, foreign investments and the international migration after the World War II was analyzed. It was found out that during the 1950s-1960s, prior to the present-day globalization, the intensity of international economic ties, as well as their role in the global economy, was considerably lower than at the beginning of the 20th century.
- Berezkin M.Yu., Sinyugin O.A., Soloviev A.A. Geography of innovations in the sphere of traditional and renewable power generation in the world
At present the prospects of renewable power generation should not be separated from those of the traditional one. As a result of the decades of development the traditional power generation has practically reached the technological limits of growth. At the same time it is dependent on unstable prices of energy sources. Renewable power production could not compete with traditional one in terms of energy volumes and the share of the energy balance. But in the innovation sphere it is necessary to evaluate the advantages of renewable power production, such as growth rates of installed capacity, adoption of new technologies, attractiveness for investments, research intensity, etc. Both on global and regional scale the renewable is particularly advantageous for the energy safety of a country or a region. Therefore investigation of the geography of innovations in the sphere of traditional and renewable power generation in the world is undoubtedly challenging. The article deals with forecasts of renewable power generation development in the world and in Russia based on the economic-geographical analysis.
Methods of geographical studies
- Revokatova A.P., Surkova G.V., Kislov A.V. On the technique of real-time calculation of the emissions of air pollutants (case study of Moscow and the Moscow oblast)
A technique of real-time calculation of the emissions of air pollutants is described. Emission values calculated by the suggested technique could be used as input data for the chemical-transportation models aimed at the air quality forecast for the territory of Moscow and the Moscow oblast. The technique of calculating the CO-emissions provides for the realization of the short-time forecast of CO concentration field.
The study deals with the elaboration of a technique for the modeling of accessibility of metro stations and those of surface public transport. The accessibility of these facilities is among the important indicators of the quality of transport services. The technique is based on geoinformational methods and approaches used for the compilation of diffuse models of spatially distributed phenomena. The technique was used to model and analyze current accessibility of metro stations and those of surface public transport in the South-West of Moscow.
- Kovach N.S. Mapping of linear engineering facilities using the results of laser scanning
The article describes the procedure and specific features of mapping on the basis of data acquired through mobile, ground and aerial laser scanning. Possibilities of integrating the materials of scanning with other cartographic and informational data are illustrated by the example of a project aimed at the acquisition and processing of data for the sections of four railways (Oktyabrsky, Ryazansky, Smolensky and Bryansky) with the total length of 1400 km.
- Sudakova N.G., Antonov S.I., Vvedenskaya A.I., Kostomakha V.A. Palaeogeographical dependence of the development of periglacial-loess formation in the basin of the Upper Volga and Oka rivers
Formation and distribution of cover loess-like sediments are discussed in relation to the palaeogeographical conditions of periglacial lithogenesis in the edge zones of the Moscow and the Late Pleistocene glaciations. Regional features of loess-like loam structure and composition were revealed which made it possible to describe their genesis and the stages of sedimentation for particular generations. The map represents areas of loess-like sediments of different depths and geomorphologic positions. There is a trend of zonal variability of the depth of polychronous loess-like formations in line with the palaeogeographical zonality of continental glaciations.
Bird faunas of the mountains of Asian Sub-Arctic (Koryak and Kolyma highlands, Verkhoyansky, Chersky, Kular and Poluosny ranges in Yakutia, Anabar and Putorana plateaus, Pripolyarny and Polyarny Ural mountains) were analyzed. Common taxonomic structures and species composition of nesting birds (totally 197 species) were revealed. Half of the bird fauna of these mountains is made of widely distributed species (from the Urals to the Koryak Highland). The most uniform composition is typical for the mountains of Yakutia, the Putorana Plateau and the Kolyma Highland. Most of bird species of the mountains of Asian Sub-Arctic inhabit a wide range of elevations covering not less than two altitudinal belts. The core of the regional nesting bird fauna (70 to 81%) is composed of the species entering the mountain regions from the adjacent plains. On their move to the east many species expand their habitat areas upward to the mountains. The species composition is much more similar for the birds of mountain forests than for those of sub-golets and golets zones.
- Kachinsky V.L. Behavior of bituminous substances in the soils of southern tundra and middle taiga landscapes: barriers-screens and barriers-concentrators
Radial and lateral differentiation of bituminous substances of oil genesis in the soils of middle taiga landscapes (southern part of the North Sos’va upland) and those of light and oily types in the soils of southern tundra landscapes (south-eastern part of the Malozemelskaya tundra) on barriers-screens and barriers-concentrators was analyzed in relation to changing soil-forming factors. Factors governing the activity of barriers-screens and barriers-concentrators of bituminous substances were evaluated. Factors that control accumulation, migration and transformation of bituminous substances in soil catenas under study were revealed.
The results of studying the fluctuations of the Black Sea level during the recent 5000 years are discussed which were obtained through detailed stratigraphic and lithological-facial analysis of the complex of coastal sediments. Different types of indicators (geomorphologic, lithological-facial and archaeological) were compared as to their accuracy during investigations of the coasts of the North-Western Black Sea and the Kerchensky Straight. Constraints of each type of indicators were described and the necessity to combine them in order to obtain the reliable results was demonstrated.
- To the 90th anniversary of Kirill Fabianovich Voitkovsky’s birth
- Jubilee of Irina Pavlovna Gavrilova
- To the 75th birthday of Vyacheslav Nikolayevich Konishchev
- Timashev I.Ye. Textbook on recreational landscape science for universities