Theory and methodology
- Korotayev V.N. Morphogenetic classification and regionalization of river mouth systems: geomorphologic aspect of the problem
Geography and ecology
Morphogenetic classification and regionalization of river mouth systems were elaborated basing on the analysis of geological and geomorphologic data for large river deltas of the world including river mouths of the Arctic coast of Siberia and the south regions of Russia. General definitions of river mouth geomorphologic and sediment systems are suggested. Regional features of delta-forming processes were revealed for the principal types of river mouth systems and river deltas.
- Chubarova N.E., Zhdanova E.Yu. Ultra-violet resources over the territory of Russia under clear sky situation
Spatial distribution of UV solar radiation over the territory of Russia for different seasons of the year under clear sky situation was evaluated by 1x1º grid basing on precise modeling calculations. Variations of principal geophysical parameters influencing the biologically active UV radiation are described. Original classification of UV resources was elaborated and used to identify UV-deficient, UV-excessive and UV-optimal natural areas of Russia taking into account the distribution of aerosols, surface reflection factor and total ozone concentration during different seasons of the year.
- Korbut V.V. Species diversity of Passeriformes within the “green islands” of Moscow
Species diversity of Passeriformes inhabiting the “green islands”, i.e. parks, forest parks and urban forests of Moscow, was studied. The number of bird species in different ecological groups depends on the size and structure of island habitats, the degree of their fragmentation, as well as the ratio of cultural and natural areas. A hypothesis on the role of pre-adaptations to dynamic urban conditions was suggested for a number of urban bird species; these pre-adaptations develop during the historical existence of the species in natural ecotones.
Methods of geographical studies
- Surkova G.V., Koltermann K.P., Kislov A.V. Method of forecasting storm conditions for the Black Sea under climate changes
Mathematic modeling (climatic models or models of the Earth’s climatic system) is used to forecast variations of the state of the environment under climate changes. However, the direct application of modeling results to forecast dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena (DHP) would not bring success because such phenomena as squalls, floods, catastrophic snowstorms etc. are formed within circulation systems of small spatial and temporal scales and therefore could not be adequately depicted by the models of general atmosphere-ocean circulation. Forecasting of DHP becomes possible if they are closely related to particular large-scale parameters of meteorological fields which could be reliably modeled. In this case in order to forecast a certain DHP in a particular region it is necessary just to have information about the transformation of a large-scale predictor under climate changes.
The article presents an example of suggested approach application. Statistical data of storm conditions in a number of sites of the Black Sea coast was analyzed and their changes were forecasted for the middle of the 21st century under a specific scenario of climate warming.
The development of a geographic information system for the analysis of transport situations is discussed and its application for the Ramenki municipal district is described. Transport situation analysis was based on spatial and statistical data, as well as the own observation data of the author, all stored in the relational database. The process of relational database development is also discussed. Schemes of the transport situation in the Ramenki district, graphs and diagrams showing the dependencies of several parameters are presented.
- Safianov G.A., Moiseeva M.A. Morphodynamic conditions of textural differentiation of sediments at the beaches and foreshores of the White Sea.
The article presents the results of investigation of conditions and factors of textural differentiation of sediments at the beaches and foreshores at the Tersky Bereg of the White Sea within the autonomous lithodynamic system under study. The investigations were carried out to reveal the relation of the textural structure of sediments to local features of relief forming and sediment accumulation. Analysis of dozens of samples made it possible to reveal well-defined differentiation of textural composition of sediments along the section of shores and foreshores. The textural structure of sediments is closely related to morpholothodynamic processes running on within the area under study and depends on numerous factors superimposing the process of wave-induced transformation of the shores.
- Tuzhilkin V.S., Arkhipkin V.S., Myslenkov S.A., Samborsky T.V. Synoptic variability of thermo-haline conditions in the Russian part of the Black Sea coastal zone
Field observation data on water temperature and salinity obtained during expedition in June-July 2009 in the Golubaya Bay (the Black Sea, near the town of Gelendzhik) were analyzed. High synoptic variability of parameters was revealed, with the temporal range of several days to several weeks and value ranges of 14ºC and 1,5‰ respectively. The upwelling of cold and salty subsurface water and subsequent intrusion of a surface lens of warm and less salty water were the most important marine synoptic phenomena during the period of observations. Both had no direct relation to local meteorological conditions. It was supposed that the phenomena were the result of divergent and convergent stages of a coastal-trapped wave. Reasons for the hypothesis are discussed.
Chalov R.S., Mikhailova N.M., Zhmykhova T.V. Side-bars morphology, morphometric parameters and dynamics (case study of the Severnaya Dvina River)
Side bars (individual ridges or parts of more complex ridges, i.e. riffles) are an important form of river channel relief. They could be simple (elementary) and large (complex), the latter composed of several superimposed ridges. Dependence of simple side-bar parameters on the river width and morphodynamic type of a channel was revealed. Side-bar transformation in the process of their movement within a channel section and under their stable location in braided channel reaches and at channel meanders is discussed.
- Grechushnikova M.G., Edelshtein K.K. Possible changes of the Rybinsk reservoir hydrological regime under climate warming
Results of a prognostic calculation of possible changes of the hydrological conditions in the Rybinsk reservoir by the middle of the 21st century are presented. The calculation was based on the modeling of climate warming according to A2 scenario (INM RAS) and related changes of water runoff in the Upper Volga River basin for a low-water year. The results of hydrological calculations showing the inevitable transformation of water balance structure, the increase in reservoir flowage and changes of its level and ice-thermal regime are discussed.
Stratigraphy of the recent deposits at the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea is discussed. The method of complex analysis (position in a section, geomorphologic and hypsometric situation, mollusk fauna, radiocarbon dating etc.) and stratum description made it possible to identify the following layers: Low- and Upper-Khvalynian, Dagestanian, Low- and Upper-Novocaspian and modern deposits. The whole section is characterized by high sedimentation rates and variety of lithofacial structure of deposits with considerable share of coarse alluvium and proluvium (from Talash and Elburs mountains).
The Kronotskoye Lake is the largest lake of Kamchatka, hardly accessible and poorly studied in terms of hydrology. Sounding-based depth map of the lake, coordinates of depth distribution curves, updated size and morphometric values of the lake depression are presented, as well as hydrophysical features and hydrochemical parameters of its water mass.
- To the 80th birthday of Vadim Nikolayevich Mikhailov
- To the 70th birthday of Leonid Alekseevich Zhindarev
- Smolitskaya T.A., Korol T.O., Golubeva E.I. Book about the urban cultural landscape