Theory and methodology
- Baburin V.L. Development of territorial natural-economic systems as a basis of economy
The article deals with the impact of spatial factors on the economy functioning within different cycles of its development. It describes the influence of the scale of space on both specialization and character of innovation and other macro-economic waves. Model approaches are suggested which allow evaluation of phase transitions in the regional economy depending on macro-economic shifts.
- Dronin N.M., Kirilenko A.P. Importance of climatic and political-economic factors for the dynamics of grain crop yields in the Russian history of the 20th century
Climatically determined values of grain crop yields in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union calculated by Australian historian S.G.Witcroft for the period of 1885-1940 are analyzed. The Witcroft’s algorithm was the basis for calculation of climatically determined values of grain crop yields in the RSFSR for the period of 1958-1990. Comparison of climatically determined crop yields with its trend values and statistical data on crop harvest makes it possible to conclude to what extent grain crop yields depended of climatic and non-climatic factors during different historical periods. Generally there is a high degree of correlation between weather conditions and grain crop yields for the historic period under study. However during politically unstable time intervals the real yields were considerably below the climatically determined ones.
- Mukhin G.D. Ecological-economic assessment of land use structure within the European territory of Russia during two recent decades
A detailed territorial analysis of cultivated area decrease, changes in crop structure and argotechnical level of land cultivation within the European part of Russia was carried out for the period of 1990-2009 basing on the large volume of land inventory and agricultural statistical data. Zonal-regional features and scope of agricultural land losses were revealed. Environmental and economic effects of land use crisis were differentiated for two large sub-regions of European Russia, i.e. Non-Chernozem and Chernozem ones. General ideas on the utility and possibility of land return to agricultural use are discussed.
- Ogureeva G.N., Miklyaeva I.M., Bocharnikov M.V. Present-day state and the trends of transformation of the mountain ecosystems of Mongolia.
The state of Mongolian ecosystems was monitored during 2008-2011 under the investigations of the United Russian-Mongolian Complex Biological Expedition of the RAS and MAS. The basic map Ecosystems of Mongolia was used for the study. A part of the central Khingan Range was chosen as a model area and a map of present-day ecosystems (15 subunits) was compiled for it at the medium scale (1:1000000). Dynamics of mountain steppes in-between 1995 and 2011 is described for several altitudinal zones, i.e. golets-tundra, mountain tundra (tundra-steppe), under-golets, forest-steppe and steppe ones. The state of mountain ecosystems was evaluated using four-degree scale. The comparative analysis showed that just few ecosystems of high-mountain zones are preserved intact; the area of good-state ecosystems (I degree) has decreased considerably; the area of slightly deteriorated ecosystems (II degree) has increased, while those of moderately and severely deteriorated ecosystems (III-IV degrees) showed a pronounced increase.
Methods of geographical research
- Mikhalev D.V., Nikolayev V.I., Romanenko F.A. Reconstruction of the conditions of underground ice formation within the Kolyma Lowland during the Late Pleisocene-Holocene using the results of isotope investigations
Complex analysis of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes (δD and δ18O) provided evidence that the ice wedges were formed of atmospheric water. The structure-forming ice showing massive cryostructure seems to be a product of the frost desiccation of soil during winter period. The same processes of water mass transfer were of particular importance for the formation of all types of structure-forming ice (with reticulate, schlieren and other cryostructures), mainly during the cold epochs of the Pleistocene. There was an isotope exchange between the ice enclosed in organic matter-rich sediments and the products of organic matter destruction. The exchange gained in intensity during warm epochs.
- Rezepkin A.A. Thermal flows at the open-ice and moraine-covered parts of the Djan-Kuat glacier (the Elbrus region)
Tongue parts of many glaciers are covered with moraine; therefore it is useful to understand the changes of the main heat flows on moraine surface as compared with the open ice and the influence of the surface moraine on the ablation of underlying ice. Data of two automatic meteostations were analyzed together with ablation values measured with the modern ablatiograph at the Djan-Kuat glacier (the Central Caucasus) during the 2010 field season. One meteostation-ablatiograph complex was located at the open ice surface, while the other was placed nearby at the 65 cm high moraine ridge. It was revealed that radiation balance has the greatest influence on ablation while the indirect heat exchange is almost not important. The direct heat exchange in both its absolute values and the daily variation is the most dissimilar heat flow for the open and moraine-covered ice.
- Gorokhov S.A. Religious identity as a factor of confessional regions formation in the present-day world
The article deals with specific features of confessional regions development in the present-day world. Influence of religious identity on their formation within the framework of the process of territorial-confessional differentiation is discussed. The analysis of quantitative parameters of the religious structure of human society was of particular importance for the study.
Japan is a country with a well-organized multilevel system of regional policy. The Hokkaido Island is a unique region where the targeted regional policy was implemented since it became a part of Japan in 1869. Nowadays Japanese regional policy is turning to multi-polar development accounting for specific features of particular regions – from the large-scale state-level projects to small local projects and programs. The results of the policy are analyzed and described using both the typology of Hokkaido subprefectures and particular case studies.
- Khristoforov A.V., Yumina N.M., Belyakova P.A., Nosan V.V. Evaluation of river discharge in the Amur River basin
International status of the Amur River (the basin lies within the territories of Russia, China and Mongolia) considerably complicates the economically efficient and ecologically safe use of its water resources. The problem of water discharge evaluation at the confluences of the Amur River basin watercourses in the absence of hydrometric observation data is discussed. It is suggested to consider the ratio of drainage basin areas of each of three river section at each confluence on the assumption of rather synchronous changes of their water discharges and the amount of side inflow. The dependence of calculation accuracy on the duration of averaging time interval and the size of evaluated tributary is also studied.
Spatial variations and temporal dynamics of overbank sedimentation rates were studied on the floodplains of six rivers located in different parts of the central Russian Plain. Radioactive isotope 137Cs was used as a tracer for quantification of sedimentation rates. At least two morphologically typical floodplain segments of each river under study were depth-incrementally sampled to determine 137Cs distribution along the sediment section. Both bombing-related (1963-1964 period) and Chernobyl-related (1986) 137Cs peak concentrations could be reliably identified in most of investigated sections. So it became possible to evaluate sedimentation rates for two relatively same time intervals, i.e. 1964-1986 and 1986-2008. The trend of decreasing floodplain deposition was revealed for recent decades. It can be attributed to climate change and land use transformation.
It was found that 139 species of sow bugs inhabit Northern Eurasia within the former USSR territory. Till now no sow bugs were found in soils of tundra, forest tundra, and northern and middle taiga. The species diversity of sow bugs steadily grows from the southern taiga to steppes with maximum values typical for northern steppes. However their species composition is different in particular natural zones. The natural range of sow bugs is to the south of the line corresponding to 120 day-long period of air temperature above 10ºC.
- Kalutskova N.N., Telnova N.O. Application of landscape approach for the geoecological training of students.
Application of landscape approach as a scientific-methodological basis for educational and educational-professional field training of students specializing in geoecology is discussed. Present-day landscapes are principal operational-territorial units for component and complex evaluation of the state of the environment and identification of the areas of particular geoecological problems. Examples of applied (assessment and planning) landscape studies carried out during educational and educational-professional field training under the Geoecology profile are described.
- Alexandrova A.Yu., Milenko N.N., Tikunov V.S. Geography at the M.V.Lomonosov Readings held at the Chernomorsky Branch of the Moscow State University in Sevastopol
- Ruleva S.N., Savotchenko L.N. At the MSU Inter-School Council on the Problems of Erosion, Channel and River Mouth Processes.
- Chalova E.R. Complex Atlas of Development of Irkutsk