Centenary of Sergey Alexandrovich Kovalev
Theory and methodology
- Gubanov M.N., Kiseleva N.M., Kotova T.V., Maslennikova V.V., Nokelainen T.S., Talskaya N.N., Tikunov V.S. Mapping for higher schools: state-of-the-art and prospects
Main stages and specific features of map creation for higher educational institutions are presented in a context of the development of complex mapping in this country. Principal achievements of higher school cartography are pointed out. Aims and prospects of the cartographical support of higher schools under new conditions of radical public changes and introduction of multimedia into educational activities are discussed.
Interactions of political-administrative boundaries and tourism are of controversial nature. Under universal trend of decreasing barrier and increasing contact functions the boundaries, particularly state ones, often become tourist attractions and the adjacent territories turn into tourist destinations. Elaboration of a new field of interdisciplinary research, i.e. limology (border studies), which makes it possible to associate tourism to the system of boundaries is discussed.
- Knizhnikov Yu.F. Stereoscopic geomodeling: the conceptual basics
Stereoscopic geomodeling which is regarded as an integral part of the aerospace (remote) sensing of the Earth is based on the interaction of human vision and technical means. Three historical stages are identified when different aspects of the discipline were actively developed which corresponded to the main practical applications of aerospace imagery during the particular stage. At present the principal target of the stereoscopic geomodeling is to monitor spatial changes and an aerospace image becomes a model of phenomena and processes under study.
- Khoroshev A.V., Aleshchenko G.M. Hierarchical organization of links between landscape components
Principal approaches to the investigation of interrelations between landscape components are described. The difficulties of identifying the hierarchy of such interrelations are analyzed. A sequence of operations is suggested which make it possible to reveal the number of hierarchical levels of geosystems, as well as their boundaries, basing on the identification of resonance levels in the interactions between landscape features and relief. Possible identification of uniform and paradynamic geosystems is discussed.
Geography and ecology
Specific features of hydrocarbon background in soils are discussed basing on the example of two key areas located in the southern taiga soil-geographical subzone of sod-podzolic soils. The hydrocarbon state of the soils is described by quantitative parameters, as well as composition and ratio of hydrocarbon gases, bitumoids and particular hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes). Different hydrocarbon complexes of zonal and azonal soils contribute to the differentiation of types of the natural hydrocarbon state of soils.
- Goryainova I.L., Leonova N.B., Feodoritov V.M. Overgrowing of agricultural lands within the middle taiga of the Arkhangelsk oblast
Overgrowing of abandoned agricultural lands with trees was analyzed basing on the long-term observations at the same test areas. The area of the study belongs to two middle taiga landscapes (the Northern Dvina and Vag rivers interfluve). The intensity of overgrowing and the prognosis of the forest type as a function of the previous land use and the landscape features are discussed. Floristic classification of emerging communities is suggested. Transformation of the species composition of a community in the process of meadow-into-forest transition requires further investigation on the basis of stationary observations.
Channel processes in the upper and middle reaches of the Amur River, which result in the losses of Russian land area, are described. The left bank of the river undergoes directed erosion while the right (i.e. Chinese) one is equipped with bank protection constructions. These processes lead to the shift of the Russian-Chinese state boundary which goes along the river midstream. The role of hydrotechnic structures in the transformation of channel regime and the emergence of disputed areas is discussed.
Streletskaya I.D., Vasiliev A.A., Slagoda E.A., Opokina O.L., Oblogov G.E. Poligonal ground-ice wedges on the Sibiryakov Island (the Kara Sea)
New data on the composition, cryogenic state and absolute age of the Quaternary sediments at the Sibiryakov Island (the Kara Sea) are presented. The island is a fragment of 30 000-year-old land area which is built of sand and clay icy sediments. By the beginning of the Holocene the majority of land went under the sea and remaining islands were lowered by cryogenic processes. Ground-ice wedges were studied in two cliffs of the lowered surfaces. Chemical composition of ice was analyzed, as well as the amount of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. It was found out that the Late Holocene poligonal ground-ice wedges were formed in the process of epigenetic freezing of sediments under winter temperatures which were close to present-day values. Slower growth and partial degradation of ice were caused by increasing precipitation.
Spatial changes of river discharge within the Russian part of the Amur River basin were studied by different methods. The first one, traditional, is based on the interpretation of a map of mean specific discharge and is applicable for the rivers with basin areas between 5 and 50 thousand sq.km. If the basin area is less than 5 thousand sq.km river discharge calculation becomes by far less accurate. The second approach considers the indication features of a river basin. The order of the river, its basin area and river network density are closely interrelated. Mean specific discharge values increase as the river order grows. Thus it is possible to re-calculate them for specific river order value and represent the results on a map. This would contribute to increasing the accuracy of river discharge calculation for basin areas between 2 and 5 thousand sq.km.
- Gennadiev A.N., Smirnova M.A. Soil catenas at the slopes of sinkholes
The article deals with specific soil-forming processes at the slopes of 16 sinkholes within the Belomor-Kuloy Plateau and the Southern Ural Mountains. It was shown that the depth of humus horizon increases and the content of organic matter decreases down the sinkhole slopes. Both textural and metamorphic horizons lose their depth and their morphological properties become less obvious. Soils of the bottom parts of sinkhole slopes with different relief and lithological features have more in common than those of their middle and upper parts.
- Ivanov A.N., Butorina E.A., Baldina E.A. Long-term dynamics of primary spruce forests (southern taiga) in the Kologriv Forest natural reserve
The object of the study is the core area of the Kologriv Forest reserve, i.e. a unique primary spruce stand which never experienced cuttings and underwent spontaneous evolution without any direct human impact. The study is based on the comparative analysis of test areas descriptions made in 1979-1984 and in 2010, as well as the analysis of diachronous space imagery. During the 30-year period with zero human interventions the species composition of the forest shows the radical decrease of spruce, less radical of lime and the increase of birch. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain the situation: the influence of an “island” effect, the response to climate change and the cyclic evolution of spruce forests.
- Kondrin A.T. Non-tidal oscillations of sea level in the vicinity of the MSU Belomorskaya biological station
Non-tidal oscillations of sea level in the vicinity of the MSU Belomorskaya biological station are described basing on the observations made in June-October of 2008 and 2009. Particular attention was given to the oscillations of residual sea level within the synoptic range of time scales (from several days to a month). Considerable wind effected oscillations were recorded in autumn when the cyclones become more active over the Barents and White seas. The predominant effect of “reverse barometer” is obvious if the mean ten-day values of the sea level and the atmospheric pressure are compared.
- Nikiforov S.L., Koshel S.M., Frol V.V. Digital terrain model of the White Sea bottom
The digital terrain model of the White Sea bottom was compiled using the GIS-technologies and new techniques of the morphogenetic analysis of bottom topography. The model contributes to the production of digital maps at a wide range of scales without losing the original content and information, creation of various 3-D images and animations, combination with other data, carrying out the comparative mathematical analysis and so on. Basing on the complex analysis of geomorphologic, geological, geophysical and other data the model considers for the genesis of the relief, its structural features, paleogeographical conditions and present-day evolution. The digital terrain model is of particular importance for database compilation and geoacoustical investigations. Jubilees