- V.N.Florovskaya – an outstanding researcher of the geochemistry of carboniferous substances
Theory and methodology
- Kislov A.V., Demchenko P.F. Analysis of evolution problems of geography using mathematical apparatus of the Brownian motion
During recent decades the diagnosis and forecast of the state of the environment has become an important line of geographical research. The article deals with several general regularities of changes of various natural objects. The concept under discussion originates in the theory of the Brownian motion and inherits its mathematical apparatus, i.e. the Langevin equation. Description of evolution problems of geography which could be narrowed to this equation makes it possible to evaluate a number of indicators, first of all, the process dispersion, from the common perspective. The process dispersion values are necessary to calculate confidential intervals. By correlation with observed changes this could be useful to determine if the process dynamics represents targeted external impacts or it is governed by internal variations due to interactions of the objects with different parameters of inertia.
Key words: evolution problems of geography, the Brownian motion, glaciers, lakes, palaeoclimate, uneven rotation of the earth, anomalies of temperature and salinity.
The article describes methods of studying vernacular intraurban areas which have been suggested basing on field investigations in San-Francisco, Khabarovsk, Perm and Smolensk. The principal point is the identification of forces influencing the intraurban vernacular areas and their vector representation which makes it possible to undertake mathematical operations with them.
Key words: vernacular areas, identity, field investigations
Global changes of the natural environment and society
- Romanova E.P. Geoecological state of the natural-anthropogenic systems in Europe
The analysis of the geoecological state of the main zonal types of landscapes within the territory of exterior Europe is based on the calculation of biopotential of landscapes, their assimilation potential and the ecological footprint of population in terms of consumption which indicates the pressure over lands. The indicators were calculated in both absolute values of area and specific per capita values using the international procedure of calculating the ecological footprint. Unfavorable geoecological state of natural-anthropogenic systems within main natural zones of Europe was revealed, resulting from the deficit of productive lands which are necessary to satisfy the present-day demand for ecosystem services.
Key words: geoecological analysis, natural-anthropogenic geosystems, ecological footprint.
- Makhrova A.G., Golubchikov O.Yu. Russian town under capitalism: social transformation of intraurban space
Transformation of social spatial structure of Russian towns under transition to capitalistic relationships is analyzed. The examples of Moscow and other towns illustrate the trends in formation of correlations between income stratification of the society and increasing social contrasts in the system of settling and urban morphology. Ethnic segregation and the role of predominant model of urban policy in transformation of the urban environment are also discussed. Contribution of the spatial component to the growth of social contradictions in Russian towns is estimated.
Key words: social spatial inequality, segregation, town, gentrification, urban policy, Moscow.
- Chubarov I.G., Sluka N.A. The largest agglomerations of China within a system of global cities
Transformation of the world system under globalization has resulted, among other, in the emergence of a transnational urban system with global cities as a main element. The cities of Asia-Pacific region, in particular of China, are prominent in this network. Criteria of the present-day global urban network are analyzed and the position of the largest agglomerations of China, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guang Zhou, is evaluated in terms of the four dimensions of globality - in geodemographic, geopolitical, geoeconomic and socio-cultural spheres. Global cities of China were classified into several types. It is forecasted that the number of global cities will grow in China and their position in the transnational urban system will strengthen.
Key words: agglomeration, PRC, global city.
- Naumov A.S. Modern developments of specialized agricultural region in foreign countries
Features of regional specialization of agriculture are analyzed. Calculations of the coefficient of localization of the main crops support the conclusion regarding relative stability of regions with specialized agriculture in the United States and France. Regional specialization of agriculture has reached its optimum in these countries and its changes are mostly the result of biofuel production growth. In Brazil which owns vast uncultivated land resources and is expanding on the world markets, the regions with specialized agriculture are the most mobile ones.
Key words: geography of agriculture, regional specialization of agriculture in foreign countries
Cartography and geoinformatics
The article lists and discussed in brief original maps of terrestrial vertebrates published in the National Atlas of Russia, a number of complex atlases of Russian regions and in the Large Atlas of Kazakhstan. During 2004-20011 the authors published more than 50 relevant maps in nine atlases. The maps could be classified into four types: maps of habitats, maps of terrestrial vertebrate communities, maps with quantitative parameters of the fauna and terrestrial vertebrate communities, maps of distribution for particular species or groups of species of terrestrial mammals. In the future it will be possible to compile similar maps for other countries neighboring the territory of Russia.
Key words: terrestrial vertebrates, wildlife mapping, complex atlases, geoinformation technologies.
The article describes the role and suggests the position of a map of nature management conflicts in the process of designing nature protection areas of regional and local importance. The maps were compiled using the author’s original procedure for territorial planning at the highest and middle levels. As an example, maps of nature management conflicts for nature protection areas of the Moscow oblast are cited.
The study has proved that the maps intended for the lowest-possible level of planning make it possible to demonstrate the details of a conflict which are typical for a particular small area. Other levels of planning which require rather large groups of indicators to be elaborated do not provide the same opportunity.
Key words: design of nature protection areas, nature management conflicts.
Regional aspects of the adaptation of different groups of ethnic migrants in Russia are discussed basing on the results of field investigations, as well as the approaches to study the problems of migrants applied in foreign countries. Particular groups of ethnic migrants, such as Armenians, Azerbaijani, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Moldavians, Tajikistani, Uzbeks etc., are described. Factors contributing to the adaptation and integration of ethnic migrants into the Russian society are identified.
Key words: ethnic migration, adaptation, regional features.
The spatial-temporal regularities of settlement evolution in old-developed regions are discussed basing on the cyclicity concept. Specific features of the transformation of settlement pattern are revealed for the model regions, i.e. South-Western Russia and the Ukrainian Podolia. Four cycles of the settlement process, their branches and stages, general regularities and territorial variations are identified and analyzed.
Key words: settlement pattern, development, cycle, branch, stage
Specific features of regional nature management as a general scientific applied problem of the economic-geographical science are discussed. Economic-geographical aspects of studying regional nature management and land use in Dagestan are revealed.
Key words: regional nature management, Dagestan
- Vasilyeva O.E. Territorial organization of medical services in rural areas of the Bashkortostan Republik)
The article deals with the transformation of health care institutions in the Bashkortostan Republic during the post-Soviet period. The structure of the network of health care institutions and specific features of their location are analyzed basing on field studies within three key districts of the republic and with the account of the schemes of the territorial organization of medical services and the types of the territorial organization of rural medical services.
Key words: medical services, network of health care institutions, central district hospital, rural ambulatory, feldsher-midwife station, type of the territorial organization of medical services, the Bashkortostan Republic.
The problem of distinction between the multi-annual snow fields and the glaciers is still under discussion. The author suggests his viewpoint basing on the observation of the small glaciers in several regions of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic. The notion of a “small glacier” and its difference from the multi-annual snow fields are discussed. The morphological classification of the small glaciers of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic is suggested and their general features and the present-day state are described.
Key words: snow fields, small glaciers, Arctic, Sub-Arctic.
- Yanina T.A. The XYIII Congress of the INQUA
- Sudakova N.G., Yanina T.A. The VII all-Russian meeting on Quaternary research “The polymorphous Quaternary. Basic problems, results of studies and further research activities
- Piankov S.V., Tikunov V.S. International school-seminar ”Geoinformational support of modernization in Russia and the CIS countries. Institutional, technological and human capacity”