Theory and methodology
- Dyakonov K.N., Bochkarev Yu.N. Geophysical factors influencing the diameter increment of trees in the landscapes of the West-Siberian Plain and the Elbrus region
The Fourier-analysis periodograms were used to reveal multi-frequency oscillations of tree increment values for typical geosystems of the northern taiga in the West-Siberian Plain and the Elbrus region. The role of geophysical factors influencing the increment dynamics, i.e. solar and geomagnetic activity (the Wolf numbers and the AA geomagnetic index), as well as climatic factors, was estimated for each hierarchical level of oscillations. The complex of geophysical factors controls the variations of bioproduction processes, and their influence is more pronounced at the northern limit of forests than at the forest line in the Elbrus region. The input of solar and geomagnetic activity is higher in the Elbrus region.
Long-term seasonal observations of landscape dynamics in the south-eastern Meshchora (the Lesunovo station) resulted in the following. The number of facies types is 25 to 100 times higher than the number of weather state types at the same point of time. Usually one weather state type corresponds to a natural territorial complex (NTC) of urotchishche level. Combinations of several weather state types are typical for NTC of landscape and area levels. Different states within the same urotchishche evolve due to anthropogenic factors. The number of groups of the same states could be from one to several dozens. The duration of the process changes from season to season and from year to year, while the mean values increase from higher situated landscapes and urotchishches to lower lying ones. The causes of the above-described phenomena are discussed.
Methods of geographical studies
Fixing the spatial location of the forest line in the Khibiny Mountains is a topical problem because its dynamics caused by the global environmental changes is to be evaluated. The analysis of high-resolution space imagery combined with the cartographic method made it possible to determine the location of the forest line in the Khibiny Mountains, its spatial variations and the factors influencing its position. The resulting map of 1:50000 scale “Spatial variations of the forest line in the Khibiny Mountains” was geographically analyzed.
The scope and the structure of irrevocable losses of the USSR armed forces during the Great Patriotic War as a whole, as well as its particular campaigns and stages, are described. The author identified the main theaters of operations to characterize the scope and the structure of irrevocable losses suffered by the contact troops. All calculations except the overall irrevocable losses of the USSR armed forces during the Great Patriotic War were made by the author using the statistical data published in the monograph “Disclosed information: losses of the USSR armed forces during wars, combat operations and military conflicts” (Moscow, Military Publishers, 1993).
The energy-balance statistical model of potential yields of spring barley and wheat was developed using the 1996-2008 data of agro-meteorological and actinometrical stations of the Roshydromet network and the Rosstat data on the average yields of these crops for all types of farms in particular oblasts. For the first time it was shown that under advanced agrotechnologies spring crops could yield up to 5 t/ha each year, while in the Middle Volga River region the yields are limited by low precipitation and could reach high values only in particular years.
The soil cover of the Amur River region has not been adequately studied and the data of its catenary structure are practically non-existent. The article presents the results of studying the representative soil-geochemical conjugations in the basins of Bureya and Selemdzha rivers, i.e. the catenas of brown soils, forest podbels and brown taiga soils. Morphogenetic and analytic investigation of soils forming these catenas made it possible to describe the intensity of different soil-forming processes and evaluate the lateral linkages between the soils of the geochemical conjugations. The catenas were ranked according to the development of in-soil weathering, lateral and radial migration, gleying, cryogenic processes etc.
The article presents a palaeogeomorphological analysis of the Kolyma River delta which is based on the recent data and makes it possible to identify three generations of palaeo-deltas, namely boreal (the Chukochya Edoma plain), Kargin (the Khallerchinskaya Edoma plain) and the Holocene ones. As a result of the Holocene delta formation post-glacial valley bay was almost totally filled with river sediments and the delta bars moved to the offshore zone outside the sub-aerial delta. The rate of modern delta formation is rather low; it takes place in the seaside part of the delta where new islands of 7 to 25 sq.km in area are formed.
Spatial distribution of features characteristic of no-flow periods (duration, frequency, maximum area of basins without flow under a given precipitation) has been analyzed in detail for the European part of Russia. The territory was subdivided into regions according to several parameters describing the no-flow phenomenon. A number of empirical relationships between the no-flow phenomenon and hydrometeorological conditions of particular year were suggested for the Don River basin. Air temperature and precipitation series for the cold season (November-March) were analyzed resulting in most cases in statistically reliable rising trend. The dynamics of no-flow phenomenon under present-day climate changes is discussed.
The article deals with the financial situation of settlements in the regions of the Russian Federation. Intra-regional differentiation of financial situation of settlements is described for the Chelyabinsk oblast. Economic-geographical and institutional-geographical factors influencing the financial situation of settlements are identified. The latter are of predominant importance under the redistributional system of municipal financing. Principal lines of improving the unfavorable financial situation of settlements are suggested, such as to increase institutional transparency of fiscal relations or provide settlements with property and finances to exercise their powers.
The study is based on the analysis of original sources and official documents, as well as the results of field investigations in Japan. For the first time in Russian social-economic geography and Japanese studies it examines the concept of sound material-cycle society which is now under realization in Japan and suggested for implementation all over the world.