The Extraordinary Congress of the Russian Geographical Society
Theory and methodology
- Alexeeva N.N. Ethno-cultural aspects of geoecology
Progress in ethnical ecology, social ecology, socio-natural history and other sciences contiguous with the ethno-cultural issues of geoecology is analyzed. Ethno-cultural aspects are certain to be integrated into the algorithm of geoecological assessment of the state of regional landscapes. Diverse manifestations of culture – an important mechanism of non-biological group adaptation to the environment controlling many processes which are responsible for the geoecological state of landscapes, are described. Ethno-cultural features of the landscape regions of India are identified, as well as their relations with the socio-cultural network of a territory, basing on the analysis of ethnic, religious and caste data.
Influence of catastrophic events on the natural processes during the Pleistocene has been evaluated. According to duration and dynamics catastrophic events were classified into cataclysms, i.e. rapid dynamic processes often with grave consequences, and crises, i.e. less dramatic phenomena of longer duration.
During the Pleistocene the natural evolution and the accompanying catastrophic events were absolutely incomparable in time and scope, as well as in the effects they had on relief formation and the landscape situation as a whole. The main cause is that the catastrophes were very short in time and local in space.
Geography and ecology
Kosheleva N.E., Kasimov N.S., Bazha S.N., Gunin P.D., Golovanov D.L.,Yamnova I.A., Enkh-Amgalan S. Contamination of soils with heavy metals in the industrial centers of Mongolia
Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the technogenic anomalies of heavy metal concentrations in the soils of Ulan Bator, Darkhan and Erdenet were obtained. Background geochemical conditions of the study area and the technogenic specialization of towns were determined. Spatial geochemical diversity of urban soils due to their functional specialities was studied. The ecological state of soils was evaluated basing on Mongolian environmental standards.
The article deals with the scientific substantiation of the ecological tourism development within nature monument areas of the Kamchatka Krai. An inventory of 68 existing and 24 designed nature monuments in the southern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula was carried out basing on the analysis of published data, legal documents and the results of the author’s field investigations. Criteria and parameters were elaborated to evaluate recreational features of nature monuments of the Kamchatka Krai and potential of ecological tourism development within the nature protection areas. Recommendations on the improvement of nature protection network and more effective use of the ecological-touristic potential of nature monuments in the Kamchatka Krai were suggested.
Methods of geographical studies
A problem of hierarchical levels of the lithogenic basis of landscapes which are responsible for spatial variations of particular features of landscape components is discussed. A series of hypotheses stating that a local geosystems depends on the state of accommodating landscape was verified. A set of equations was elaborated to link the properties of an operational spatial unit with morphometric parameters of relief within its environs of different dimensions. Extremely high values of determination coefficient of a model elaborated for certain environs indicate the so-called “resonance” interrelations, i.e. prior subordination of the properties of a spatial unit to the properties of the geosystem of these very dimensions. Comparative analysis was carried out for mixed forest, southern and middle taiga landscapes of the East European Plain. Characteristic spaces of interrelations between relief, soils and vegetation layers were revealed, as well as the optimal size of integral complexes with the most coordinated behavior of components.
A model of phytoplankton development in the reservoir describes the kinetics of its interactions within the ecosystem and the internal water exchange in the reservoir. Changes of blue-green and diatomic algae biomass in the Mozhaisk reservoir during the vegetation period were calculated; the resulting values are of satisfactory correlation with the observed data.
The basic principles of a “suburban town” concept are discussed. Khimki, a most fast growing town of the Moscow oblast, was analyzed in the context of the concept and the results of its dynamics are outlined. Particular attention is given to political and economic factors influencing the growth of the town, for example ideology and practice of urban planning management, and principal decision-makers. Correlation between modern western-type suburbia and the processes which take place in the town of Khimki is analyzed.
Acidity and chemical composition of snow cover samples taken in the city of Moscow and the Moscow region during 8 winter seasons (1999/2000 till 2006/2007) were analyzed. Mean pH value for Moscow city samples is 6.09, that for the Moscow region is 5.63. The farther from the city the higher is the acidity of samples (pH values go down). The lowest pH values of snow samples are characteristic to the northern part of the region. Average mineralization of snow samples in the city of Moscow and the Moscow region is 15.9 and 9.4 respectively. In the recent years the amount of pollutants in snow samples taken in the city of Moscow and the suburbs (up to 15 km from the city) increased. According to predominant ions seasonal snow samples of the city of Moscow and the Moscow region belong to chloride-calcium class.
Yellow podzolic and affined soils of the Large Sochi area are characterized by specific genetic features due to their location near the northern limit of humid subtropical zone. This increases the role of lithological and geomorphologic factors in soil formation and soil cover development in the area under study. Yellow podzolic soils almost without exceptions occur on gentle slopes or flattened ancient marine terraces with acid clayey parent rocks. Soil cover of the rest of the area includes soddy and soddy-surface gleyic soils of various depth, part of them underwent considerable anthropogenic transformation.
Dikarev V.A. International Conference “Black Sea-Mediterranean Corridor During the Last 30 000 Years”
Zaitsev A.S., Gongalsky K.B. The Second All-Russian Conference “Biogeography of Soils”.