Theory and methodology
- Yevstigneev V.M., Kislov A.V., Sidorova M.V. Influence of climate changes on the annual river runoff over the East European Plain in the 21st century
A number of methodological issues are discussed concerning the evaluation of possible river flow changes on the basis of global climate calculations using the models of the general atmosphere circulation integrated in the CMIP3 project. The results of temperature and precipitation modeling made it possible to calculate variations of annual river runoff over the East European Plain by the middle and the end of the 21st century for the A2 global warming scenario (a most unfavorable one).Particular attention was given to the study of the influence of inter-model spread in values on the evaluation of runoff changes. For example, it was found out that under A2 scenario possible changes are statistically insignificant to the north of 54-55º n.l., while to the south an overall decrease in river runoff is quite probable.
Methods of geographical studies
Variations of NO2 within the low troposphere layer have been studied basing on experimental data and model estimations for different seasons of the year. The experimental studies were carried out using gas analyzers installed on the Qstankino TV tower up to 350 m above the ground and on the top on the Moscow University main building at the height of 350 m. Mean NO2 concentrations appeared to be close to the annual mean allowable values approved in Russia. In winter a specific NO2 altitudinal trend, i.e. a rise in NO2 concentrations with increasing altitude, was observed up to the height of 250 m. There is a satisfactory correlation between experimentally obtained and modeled daily variations of NO2 concentrations at different altitudes, particularly if NO2 emissions of power plants are taken into account. According to the estimates NO2 concentrations in the lower 350 m could reach 1.5 matm•cm. Correlation between the total amount of NO2 and its concentrations in the lowest atmospheric layer was obtained basing on experimental data and modeling results.
Chernitsova O.V., Kasimov N.S., Koroleva T.V., Krechetov P.P. GIS-technologies for the assessment of the environmental impact of booster launching
The paper deals with the application of GIS-technologies for the assessment of the environmental impact of booster launching. The content of GIS databases developed for the impact zones is described in detail. The structure of databases was elaborated basing on technogenic and natural factors which predetermine the influence on the ecosystems of impact zones. An emphasis was put on the structure of the geodata base which stores information about environment components and their features. Suggested GIS structure makes it possible to realize a comprehensive analysis of accumulated information.
Geography of the world economy
Modernization of the world system in the epoch of globalization has resulted in the emergence of a transnational urban system with global cities as a main element. Their interconnections are realized mainly by air transport and the largest air line companies. The existing pattern of global cities forms the basic frame of the modern global geopolitical, geoeconomic and socio-cultural space and at the same time determines the principal vector of corporative geography transformation. The paper describes global cities as leading air hubs of the world and provides data on the hierarchy of air line companies. Correlation between the development of a system of global cities and the distribution of the Lufthansa Group affiliates (a largest air line company of the world) is also evaluated as a case study. It is argued that spatial organizational structure of the air line company is formed under the influence of a complex of factors.
The paper deals with the economic-geographical aspects of the export and import of liquefied natural gas (LNG). It describes regionalization of international delivery of LNG and integration of regional gas markets. In two recent decades international delivery of LNG has experienced the sharp growth that predetermined changes in the geography of the world trade in natural gas. Diversification of LNG flows and increasing flexibility of contractual relations allow the international trade in LNG to be regarded as an element of globalization of the world gas distribution system.
The paper deals with the study of winter snowiness in the Krasnaya Polyana area located in the Western Caucasus within the subtropical climate zone. According to the Rosgidromet data, extreme depths of snow cover were recorded there in the middle mountain belt of the Mzymta River basin. The analysis of winter snowiness under discussion was performed for the low mountain belt with considerable variations in snow cover depth, mainly due to high air temperatures in winter. Periods with different snowiness are identified for 1936-2007, intensity and periodicity of snow anomalies are evaluated and the present-day trends in winter snowiness changes are discussed.
Vorobievsky I.B., Droznin V.A., Frolova N.D., Chizhova V.P. Hydrological and recreational effects of a catastrophic mudflow in the Geyser Valley (the Kamchatka Peninsula)
Hydrological and environmental effects of natural catastrophic events (rock fall and landslide amounting to 20 mln m3, mudflow, formation of a dam and a lake in the lower reaches of the Geizernaya River) which took place on June 3, 2007, in the Geyser Valley (the Kamchatka Peninsula), are discussed. Possible causes of landslide and mudflow are suggested. Hydrological regime of the Geizernaya River and the dam lake is described, as well as the trends of its possible evolution. Prospects of ecological tourism in the Geyser Valley after the catastrophe are evaluated basing on the results of the authors’ field investigations.
The Japanese Sea acts as an important environmental factor influencing the composition and structure of oak forests of the Eastern Sikhote Alin Mountains. The coastal zone could be easily identified by such phytocenotic parameters, as a living form of Mongolian oak (which becomes a bush near the sea coast), degree of grass layer development, as well as its composition and structure. The sea universalizes the environmental conditions all over the coastal zone from the north to the south, thus making the grass cover of these forests quite uniform in floristic composition along the latitudinal gradient. The analysis has shown that the coastal zone (up to 5 km away from the coast) is floristically richer and ecologically more diverse that the continental part. At the same time such parameters of forests as tree height, plant biomass or foliage cover are lower there.
Specific features of the social structure of population and its actual dynamics were revealed basing on the results of sociological surveys carried out in 17 towns of European Russia. Social mobility and psychological aspects of adaptation are discussed for the towns which differ in population numbers, “ranks” and regional conditions. Marginalization of urban population under the profound changes of social relations at the turn of the centuries is another phenomena described in the paper.
History of science
Koshkarev A.V., Piankov S.V., Rotanova I.N., Tikunov V.S. Results of the jubilee international conference InterCarto-InterGIS-15: from the epoch of GIS to the epoch of SDI
To the 85th birthday of Vladimir Alexandrovich Nikolaev
To the 75th birthday of Leonid Viktorovich Smirnyagin
To the 60th birthday of Viktor Ivanovich Kruzhalin
To the 60th birthday of Yuri Lvovich Mazurov
Diakonov K.N., Chalov R.S., Kharitonova T.I. All-Russian scientific conference “State of the Environment and Sustainable Development of the Regions: new methods and technologies of research”
Krasovskaya T.M., Glukhov A.I. Results of the Cultural Landscape interdisciplinary scientific seminar activities in 2008/09
Snytko V.A. Proceedings of the IV International scientific conference “Tourism and Recreation: Fundamental and Applied Research”
Diakonov K.N., Tikunov V.S. Modern synthesis of the theory of physical geography