Theory and methodology
- Romanova E.P., Alexeev B.A., Vasilyeva M.A. Geoecological assessment of landscapes (case study of the territory of the Netherlands)
Conceptual and methodological approaches to the geoecological assessment of landscapes are discussed. Interactions between natural, economic, social and management subsystems of present-day landscapes are analyzed basing on the consideration of ecosystem services provided by a natural ecosystem to society and economy. A model of landscape-geoecological system (LGES) has been developed, as well as a set of indicators representing specific quantitative and qualitative features of each block of subsystems. Structural and process changes of landscapes caused by their anthropogenic transformation make it possible to assess the quality of LGES and rank them (from steadily functioning to actively degrading).
Geography and ecology
Nikiforova E.M., Kasimov N.S., Kosheleva N.E., Novikova O.V. Spatial-temporal trends in pollution of urban soils and vegetation with lead compounds (case study of the Eastern okrug of Moscow)
Spatial-temporal trends in soil pollution with lead have been revealed basing on the results of soil-geochemical surveys of the Eastern okrug of Moscow performed in 1989 and 2005. The data on bulk and mobile lead compounds for these years were used to compile maps of their technogenic anomalies in soils. The dynamics of pollution was evaluated and specific features of lead absorption by particular parts of trees, grasses and agricultural crops were identified. The average rates of lead accumulation in different functional zones of the okrug were estimated which made it possible to forecast the time period of the lead content doubling in the upper horizons of soils and in plants.
Underground corrosion of metals is the main cause of gas and oil pipelines leaking which leads to enormous material losses and terribly affects the environment. No reliable forecast of corrosive activity of grounds within the cryolithozone is available by now. High corrosive activity of grounds within steppe, forest and tundra zones was proved basing on the analysis of the rate of in-depth corrosion of metals and physical and chemical properties of the grounds. The principal factor providing for electrochemical corrosion was identified for each geographical zone.
Experience in application of geomorphologic methods during ecological investigations at the Vega facility, Volgograd UGS and Shchelkovo UGS is discussed. Morphological analysis of aeolian relief at the Vega facility was applied to estimate the depth of aeration zone, which is a principal factor of ground water safety. Morphometric analysis of watersheds made it possible to identify areas of different intensity of surface migration of pollutants within the Volgograd UGS territory. Application of morphotectonic methods for the Shchelkovo UGS territory proved to be productive for the identification of fracture zones which serve as channels for gas migration outside the storage facility. Although the geomorphologic methods are very useful, they are not applied at all for the ecological investigations in the process of construction.
Methods of geographical studies
Materials of palaeomagnetic investigation of moraines in the central part of the Russian Plain are analyzed in correlation with the results of lithological and palaeogeographical research. The remanence of moraines governed by their granulometric composition and water-deficient conditions of sedimentation shows very high dispersion of directions, thus it is not possible to reconstruct the ancient geomagnetic field. The remanence of moraines which were accumulated in humid conditions was influenced by the geomagnetic field, so the palaeomagnetic data provide information of the geomagnetic field in the time of moraine accumulation. In some moraines both remanence and the long axes of rock fragments stretch along the glacier movement direction. Palaeomagnetic data for these moraines correlate with the position of the long axes of rock fragments and provide unrelated information on the direction of glacier tongue movement. Along with the data on the orientation of rock fragments they could be used in stratigraphical and palaeogeographical studies.
Long-term (almost 70-year) observations carried out at the Ivankovskoye reservoir provide information on the dynamics of the structure of its aquatic complexes. Specific features of aquatic complexes evolution at the level of facies were revealed, i.e. decreasing area of terrestrial complexes, their transformation into pelagic complexes under pelagic-profundal conditions, into psammitic complexes under open littoral conditions and into phytocomplexes and floating bog complexes under closed littoral conditions. Pelagic and phyto- complexes became predominant in the reservoir. Processes of aquatic complexes formation during the 70-year evolution of the reservoir are mainly related to the accumulation of mineral and organic matter.
An algorithm of considering additional hydraulic resistance caused by aquatic vegetation is suggested. It was realized while modeling channel deformations in the junction of lowland rivers Suda and Kolp (the Vologda oblast). Thus it became possible to analyze the influence of vegetation on channel deformations of the lowland rivers.
The article deals with the morphology of the present-day bottom relief and types of coasts of the Black Sea, as well as the general description of principal relief-forming processes which take place at its bottom and coasts.
Specific features of origin and development of the geoeconomic conflicts between world leading economies relating to fuel and energy sector in the Caspian Sea region are examined. Principal external powers acting in the energy sector of the Caspian Sea region are identified and their geoeconomic strategies and policies in the sphere of safe energy supply through the exploitation of energy resources of the Caspian Sea countries are analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to the transformation of these conflicts as they shift from control over hydrocarbons extraction to that over the routes of their transportation. Geoeconomic confrontations which accompany the design and construction of export-oriented infrastructure (pipelines and terminals) are also analyzed, as well as the role and positions of leading world powers in these conflicts.
Both reduction of the area of industrial zones and modification of their functions take place in Moscow now. Liquidation of industrial facilities is accompanied with the expansion of business and office premises. System approach to urban territorial planning, including the development of industrial zones, is lacking, thus contributing to the aggravation of already existing problems of urban development. Differentiation of the urban territory in economic, social, transportation and other terms predetermines different trends in the development of industrial zones and diverse approaches to their restructuring.
The article deals with the scope and types of transboundary flows between the countries of emigration and the countries where migrants stay now. Theoretical approaches to the notions of transmigrants and transnationalism are discussed. Principal types and scope of transboundary flows are described basing on the example of “Russian” Germans who were the object of the author’s field studies both in Russia and Germany. Main factors influencing the participation of migrants in transboundary relations are identified. The importance of transboundary flows for the development of the regions of emigration is evaluated.
History of science
Solomatin V.I., Velikotsky M.A., Ogorodov S.A., Romanenko F.A., Biryukov V.Yu. Geocryoecology: new approaches in tackling the problems of the northern regions development (to the 40th anniversary of the Research Laboratory of Geoecology of the North)
Diakonov K.N., Tikunov V.S. New line in the environmental geography – ecology of war
Chalova E.R. Atlas of the Cracow University as an example of university campus mapping
Zalikhanov M.Ch. On the glaciation of the Elbrus Mountain