Mikhail Aramaisovich Petiosyants — founder of the Russian scientific school of tropical meteorology (to the 90th anniversary of birth)
Theory and methodology
- Chalov R.S. Spatial-temporal regularities of channel process interrelations and variability
Spatial interrelations of incision processes, transportation and accumulation of sediments at different staictural levels of channel processes occurrence are analyzed. Regularities of changes in the type of channel processes (mountainous, semi-mountainous or plain) and the morphodynamic type of channels are revealed. Temporal changes of channel processes make it possible to distinguish current, seasonal, long-term, historical (centennial) and geological deformations of river channels. Changes in the natural factors of channel processes cause their periodical fluctuations of different scales. This produces rather diverse but still forecastable pattern of both lateral and vertical channel deformations.
Methodological issues of touristic zoning are discussed, as well as its relation with physical-geographical regionalization and administrative territorial division. Principles of mountain areas zoning for sport tourism are defines. Distinctions between the notions of touristic region and touristic geographical region are presented. Touristic-geographical zoning of the Pamir Mountains has been carried out.
Geography and ecology
About 40 years passed since K. Troll suggested the notion of landscape ecology till it started to develop intensively in the 1970-s. General interest to landscape ecology was reflected in the establishment of the Society for Landscape Ecology (1972, the Netherlands) which after ten years was reorganized into the International Association of Landscape Ecology (IALE). The article describes interrelations of landscape ecology with geography, biology and, to a lesser extent, humanitarian sciences. The author suggests reviewing the concept of landscape geoecology as an independent science, because it is an interdisciplinary line of research and would keep its importance, in particular due to the necessity of landscape planning studies.
The article systematizes the results of studies on the environmental effects of oil and oil products. The processes of migration, transformation and accumulation of hydrocarbon pollutants in landscapes are described from the geochemical point of view, and the problems of their modeling are discussed. A number of indicators for oil pollution sources are described, as well as the ways to provide for environmental safety during oil fields development. Cartographic visualization is applied to analyze the principles and the experience of forecasting the geochemical state and resistance of landscapes in the areas of hydrocarbons extraction and processing.
Restrictions to nature management resulting from the dangerous hydrological phenomena are discussed. The latter include changes of water flow, sediment discharge, chemical, biological and heat flows. Hydrological restrictions which determine the efficiency and safety of nature management are analyzed.
Pollen data on the Middle Valdaian (Middle-Weichselian) deposits are rather scarce in the NW Russian Plain. Representative pollen spectra and the results of 1R-OSL dating of the Late Pleistocene sediments from a key section located in the vicinity of the Voka village provided a convincing evidence of noticeable changes in vegetation and climate on the territory the south-eastern coast of the Gulf of Finland during the period from 39 to 33 kyr BP. The palynological data prove that the period of the Middle-Weichselian sediment
accumulation covers four climatic-stratigraphic subdivisions, i.e. two stages with rather severe climate (35.3 to 32.6 kyr BP and 37.6 to 36.8 kyr BP) and two interstadials with relatively milder climatic conditions (36.8 to 35.3 kyr BP and 38.6 to 37.6 kyr BP). Changes of vegetation and climate during each of these time intervals are described in detail.
The results of the long-term observations from vessels showed the sharp and considerable decrease of mean spring and summer values of surface water salinity (by 2%c) to the depths of 20 m within vast areas of northern continental shelves of the Black and Caspian seas during the end of the 1970-s. It was mainly caused by not less sharp increase of fresh water input to the seas as a result of 1976—1978 regime shift which is well known to world climatologists. The authors suppose that water circulation is of particular importance for the long-term response of salinity to the changes of external fresh water budget within the shelf areas under study.
Panin A.V., Karevskaya I.A., Fuzeina Yu.N., Sheremetskaya E.D. The Middle Holocene stage of ravine formation in the south-western part of the Moscow region
A period of intensive ravine erosion was revealed for a key area within the middle reaches of the Protva River (the south-western part of the Moscow region), i.e. 4500—6000 years BP (the end of the Atlantic period and the beginning of sub-boreal period of the Middle Holocene). Three of four Holocene ravine of the area under study were formed during this period on steep and high slopes of river valleys. The intensification of ravine erosion correlates in time with heavy floods in the valleys of small and medium rivers. The authors suggest a common hydroclimatic cause of these phenomena, namely the storm rains of high intensity. Forest fires also contributed to destabilization of slopes, while the anthropogenic influence was minor if any. Such linear erosion processes have no analogues in other epochs of the Holocene. Thus the intensity of rains during that period was probably the highest for the Holocene.
Ogureeva G.N., Miklyaeva I.M., Vakhnina O.V., Tutubalina O.V. Field ground spectrometry of meadow vegetation within the Satino research and training station area
Spectrometry of the etalon plots of meadow vegetation started in 2008 within the Satino research and training station area with the aim to create a spectrometric database. NDVI changes during the period of vegetation were revealed for meadow cenoses and correlated with the seasonal dynamics of meadows. The results would be used to identify interpretation characteristics for meadow vegetation on space images in order to estimate its productivity and monitor its dynamics.
The northern coast of the Sambian peninsula is of abrasion type and undergoes destruction by extremely high waves. The stability of shores depends on the sediment budget in the coastal zone. The state of the continental slope was analyzed using the model of dynamic balance profile based on the Cornalia scheme. Ratios of measured depths to calculated ones lead to the conclusions about the cellular-type circulation of water masses within bays and concave segments of the shore. They also reflect possible changes of bottom relief under a particularly severe storm.
Active development of information technologies results in the increasing importance of a new way of learning, i.e. distant one. Distant learning is a new line of studying cartography as well. Distant learning course in cartography should be based on three main blocks, namely lectures, practical tasks and final works. Elaboration of each block require specific approaches. The block of lectures should be supplemented with visual graphic examples which contribute to better understanding of problems under study. Practical application of theoretical knowledge is of crucial importance in teaching cartography, therefore particular attention should be given to the blocks of practical tasks and final works. Well-elaborated practical tasks for distant learning will provide an integral vision of the subject.
History of science
Articles and materials published in the Moscow University Gerald. Series 5. Geography in 2009