Theory and methodology
- Nikolayev M.A. Intra-industry factors of progress in the international division of labor.
The study aims to determine the factors that differentiate the spatial structure of the international division of labor (IDL) in various industries and to compare the results with modern theories in economic geography. After introducing a general model of the international trade mechanism the authors describe key factors that transform its structure. They recon that a country’s position in the IDL system of particular industry is determined by a sector of the industrial value-adding chain the country is specializing in, and by a market niche of the national industry-based product at the world market. Bothe the sector and the niche are shaped to a great extent by the state industrial policy. Therefore the changing list and parameters of available sectors and niches in combination with the state sectoral policy shapes the IDL dynamics within particular industry. The conclusions are illustrated by examples fr om automotive, shipbuilding and other industries.
Under the humanization of science the issues of geographical objects representation make the relations between geography and art more actual and reflect the trends in computer technologies of visualization. The article deals with theoretical and methodical issues of the representation of cultural landscape. The concepts of types and forms of its representation have been elaborated. The key role of visual representations is emphasized. Three principal strategies of the representation of cultural landscape are suggested, namely artistic-aesthetic, ethno-cultural and conceptual.
Current views on estuaries are critically analyzed. Basing on D.Pritchard’s classical definition of estuary an attempt was made to integrate the notion of estuary into the Russian scientific concept of river’s mouth area. The most common classifications of estuaries representing the principal features of these objects are described. New hydrological-morphological typology of estuaries is suggested which can be applied for the integrated assessment of natural resources for poor studied objects.
Geography and ecology
Pikovsky Yu.I., Gennadiev A.N., Krasnopeeva A.A., Puzanova T.A. Hydrocarbon geochemical fields in the soils of oil extraction.
Basing on the results of field and laboratory investigations of hydrocarbon complex in the soils of oil extraction area ( the Kokuy oil field, the Perm Krai) hydrocarbon geochemical fields formed by various natural and technogenic processes were revealed in soils. The following forms of hydrocarbon geochemical fields were identified: of biogeochemical background, of depth emanation (natural emanations of gas fr om the depth), of near-surface emanation (emanations of vapors and gases fr om the undersoil flows of hydrocarbon pollutants) and of oil injections (oil and oil products spills over the soil surface). Geochemical parameters for the identified hydrocarbon geochemical fields are presented.
Methods of geographical studies
Methodical problems of the evaluation of possible snow cover changes using the results of global climate calculations according to the CMIP3 set of the general atmospheric circulation models are discussed. A technique of screening-out models which inadequately represent climatic regime of a certain territory was elaborated and applied. The results of temperature and precipitation modeling allowed calculating of snow cover distribution over the Eastern European Plain for the middle-end of the 21st century under the A2 scenario of the global climate warming. If the A2 scenario becomes a reality pre-spring water reserves in snow would decrease almost everywhere. The decrease will be rather slight in the north-eastern regions and nearly total in the south-west of the area.
The discovery of archaeological monuments of Arkaim and the Country of Towns in the Southern Trans-Urals has become a new argument in favor of the geographical location of early areas of culture genesis within the regional landscape ecotones. In the Bronze Age forest-steppe and steppe foothills of the Trans-Urals have become an area where the proto-civilization of ancient Aryans originated. Building of fortified settlements (proto-towns), mining and metallurgy, crafts, land cultivation and stock-raising were all supported with diverse natural resources of piedmont landscape ecotone.
The article is based on the scientific presentation of the authors at the 2008 Lomonosov Readings. It deals with conceptual and applied issues of strategic management of regional development. Specific economic geographical methods of its realization are suggested and the results of their testing are discussed.
New data were obtained in favor of the author’s view on the genesis of Baer knolls (their core sediment bodies) as a result of wind-induced currents in the littoral zone of the sea or their interactions with river discharge currents. Relief forms morphologically similar to the typical Baer knolls (except of the relative heights) were studied on the eastern banks of the Caspian Sea within the New-Caspian terrace and the territory which became land after 1929. Therefore the formation of ridge relief took place both during the Late Khvalyn transgression and under certain conditions later during the New-Caspian times and till the present days.
Relations between heat runoff of North European and Siberian rivers and their discharge values, basin areas and water temperature were studied. Reliable correlations of these parameters were obtained. Annual, seasonal and monthly values of heat runoff of medium and large rivers were estimated for their outfalls and mouths, as well as the total heat runoff to the Russian Arctic seas. Long-term and along-the-course changes of temperature regime and heat runoff of northern rivers were studied, and their natural and anthropogenic factors were revealed. The results were correlated to already published data.
Acoustic measurements in the Taganrog Bay of the Azov Sea were carried out. The bay of erosion genesis is a valley of the Ancient Don River which was widened by abrasion, land sliding and other processes. The erosion surface was found under the recent sediment layer. It dates back to the Phanagorian regression of the Ancient times. Shoalbanks at the bottom of the bay overlaying the erosion surface are of the Post-Phanagorian age. At present they are dead and buried forms of relief. The rate of sediment accumulation was estimated at 0.25-0.5 m per 1 thousand years.
Jubilee of Elena Ilyinichna Golubeva
Jubilee of Emma Petrovna Romanova
To the 75th birthday of Balis Balio Serapinas
To the 70th birthday of Mikhail Chokkayevich Zalikhanov
To the 70th birthday of Leonid Fedorovich Litvin
History of science
- Samoilova G.S., Snytko V.A., Khoroshev A.V. Landscape science conference in Minsk.
- Kiseleva S.V., Nefedova L.V. 6th All-Russian young scientists school on the Renewable Energy Sources.
- Krasovskaya T.M., Kalutskov V.N. Young scientists school on the Cultural Landscapes of Russia and Sustainable Development.