Theory and methodology
- Mikhailov V.N. Theoretical bases of forecasting the response of river deltas to the sea level rise.
Approaches to and methods of the estimation of the sea level rise influence on river deltas are discussed. In particular possible methods are described which allow analyzing, evaluating and forecasting the influence of the sea level rise on deltas inundation, advance of water backing, tide flows and surges into river branches, channel processes in the branches, as well as on the corrasion of the outer edge of deltas, redistribution of flow between the deltaic water courses and penetration of sea water into river channels. The experience of studying the response of river deltas to the recent considerable rise of the Caspian Sea level has been taken into account.
Geography is territorial history. This well-known saying of French historian and geographer Elisée Reclus is applicable to many countries of the world, in particular to the USA. Studying and understanding of the USA banking system is also impossible without knowing the historical-geographical features of its development.
Methods of geographical studies
Regularities of snow cover stratification are discussed, as well as possibilities of modeling regional vertical profiles of snow cover on the basis of standard meteorological information. Using two successive winter periods as an example inter-annual variations of meteorological phenomena were described, which govern the regime of snow accumulation and the intensity of post-sedimentation processes. An algorithm of modeling the regional stratigraphical profiles of snow cover is suggested; both true and modeled stratigraphical profiles of snow cover are presented.
Results of the experimental evaluation of evapotranspirational migration of elements in the typical landscapes of the Northern Urals are discussed. Amounts of main and trace elements involved into aerial migration by evapotranspiration were calculated. Aerial transport of evapotranspirational products is correlated with another line of aerial migration, i.e. atmospheric fallout, as well as with other migration processes. Possible approaches to the evaluation of the role of evalotranspiration in a complex system of mass transportations are suggested and discussed.
Geographical mapping and aerospace methods
Intensification of thermokarst processes is considered to be a most probable response of permafrost to the global warming. However there is yet no exact picture of the distribution of such processes. The article presents an original map of thermokarst lakes in Russia which was compiled at the scale of 1:8 Mln by analyzing space images available at the Google Earth Internet-portal. Lake size and their network density are described for all regions of their development. Particular forms of dynamics of thermokarst lakes were analyzed, i.e. shallow lakes with blue water, thermokarst depressions without lakes, depressions with ring0like border lakes, lakes with dried-off central parts, lakes dissected by the strips of vegetation, etc.), and their spatial patterns were mapped.
Gubanov M.N., Kalinkin I.V., Karpovich L.L., Kiseleva N.M., Kotova O.I., Kotova T.V., Maslennikova V.V., Nokelainen T.S., Ryabova N.V., Talskaya N.N., Tikunov V.S. Complex Atlas of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra: a new approach to the compilation of regional.
General description of the complex atlas of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra is presented, as well as the structure of its sections. New and the most interesting themes included in all sections of the two-volume edition are analyzed. Requirements and recommendations for the compilation of complex regional atlases are suggested.
Streletskaya I.D., Shpolyanskaya N.A., Kritsuk N.A., Surkov A.V. Cenozoic sediments of the Western Yamal Peninsula and their genesis.
According to the results of microstructural analysis the majority of Quaternary deposits of the region are of marine origin, while the uppermost Sartan-Holocene layer has the continental genesis. Mostly clay sediments were deposited under continuous sea transgression accompanied by intensive thermoabrasion and thermodenudation of sea coast. Saline clayey sediments with sand lenses and bands of detritus were formed within the coastal part of the continental shelf; they are just slightly processed by waves because ice cover was very heavy over the sea at those times.
Lateral distribution of different granulometric fractions (1-0.25, 0.25-0.05, 0.05-0.01, 0.01-0.005, 0.005-0.001 and less than 0.001 mm) in humus horizons of soils belonging to two catenas was studied within the Middle Protva River basin, as well as the distribution of Fe, Ti, Zr, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb and Zn which are concentrated in particular fractions. The pattern of metal distribution in particular fractions is more differentiated as compared to the total sample and depends on the size of particles. Catenary differentiation of the amount of metals in coarse dust and silt fractions differs fr om that of metal concentrations in these fractions. This could be explained by different trends of the distribution of fractions and metal concentrations in them for heteronomous soils.
Principal features of pyrogenic transformation of soil propertieis have been studied for several soil series within the Norsky nature reserve territory in the Amur River region which underwent different impacts of forest fires. Generally these soils show higher concentrations of organic carbon, wider ratio of Cgk/Cfk , increased magnetic sensitivity and lower acidity. The exception is for the soils of steep stony slopes showing lower humus content and decreased pH values because of more intensive soil washing and for peat soils where part of organic matter simply burns off. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. the products of wood burning, are higher in the soils of adjacent areas as compared with the burnt areas themselves, probably because of their transfer by the upstream flows of hot air.
The aim of the study was to investigate the dynamics of common pine plantations growth on the hilly sands of the Tersky coast as an indicator of the effectiveness of phytoameliorations of degraded lands. Structure of cenoses and morphometric parameters were analyzed for plantations of different ages. The dynamics of principal morphometric parameters of common pine, i.e. tree height, diameters at the height of 1.3 m and near the root crown, annual increment, age of needles, etc., was analyzed in relation to the age of plantations. The dependence of these parameters and the changes in species composition on the plantation structure was also evaluated.
History of science
- Koshkarev A.V., Rotanova I.N., Chumachenko A.N. International Conference InterCarto-InterGIS-14 “Sustainable Development of Territories: GIS Theory and Practical Experience”.