To the 85th birthday of G.I.Lazukov
Theory and methodology
- Berlyant A.M., Lurie I.K., Tutubalina O.V., Chalova E.R. A concept of innovative university education in geographical cartography.
Innovations in educations are generally introduction of new fundamental and applied concepts, updating and improvement of methods, technologies and education resources which provide for the formation of knowledge and competences. The key principle of the university education in geographical cartography is the integration of three basic disciplines, i.e. cartography, geoinformatics and remote sensing, which form the main modules of the education system. Among the innovative means of the system there are: 1) computer textbooks and video lectures; 2) computer-based practical training; 3) multimedia presentations and slide projections; 4) teaching and methodological computer atlases; 5) education-oriented databases and GIS; 6) dictionaries, glossaries, reference-books; 7) computer-based scientific monographies; 8) Internet-seminars, practical training, Wi-Fi access.
A common problem of regionalization methodology dependence on specific features of a territory (“possibility of zoning”, according to L. Smirnyagin) is discussed using European Russia as an example. After studying the regionalization schemes developed in the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century (the classical period of regionalization theory in Russia) it was concluded that the possibility of zoning is different for the western, central and eastern parts of European Russia. A grid model has been suggested which reflects latitudinal and longitudinal gradients of the territory. The model has been tested using the materials on the State Duma elections in the beginning of the 20th century.
Geography and ecology
The catenary analysis made it possible to show the structural-functional organization of the multi-storey sub-Mediterranean landscapes of the North-Western Caucasus. Factors of their internal differentiation were identified which govern the spatial relationships of different catenas. The catenas were classified in terms of their morphological structure, biogeochemical diversity, lithogeochemical background and migration processes. Different trends of lateral redistribution of chemical elements were identified, as well as the areas of their localization which are responsible for geochemical contrasts of catenas.
Troshkina E.S., Seliverstov Yu.G., Mokrov E.G., Sapunov V.N., Chernous P.A., Solovyev A.Yu. Influence of climatic changes over nival-glacial processes in the Khibiny Mountains.
Correlation between parameters of avalanche intensity and water-snow flows, on the one hand, and winter temperature regime and snow amounts, on the other, were studied for the Khibiny Mountains. Changes in the regime of nival-glacial processes due to climate change are evaluated.
The article deals with a challenging geoecological problem of 137Cs migration in landscapes. Mean concentrations of radioactive Cs in soils and lichens sampled in the vicinity of the Nerpa ship repair yard were significantly below maximum allowable values. Analysis of Cs concentrations in the upper soil layers within the autonomous landscapes makes it possible to identify the environment impact zone of the Nerpa ship repair yard. The outer boundary of the zone is probably 14-16 km away from the industrial site. The results of the study could be useful for the monitoring of the north-western coast of the Kola Bay.
Dendrochronology is among the principal means of studying spatial-temporal organization of geosystems within vast territories. Key features of the temporal organization of northern taiga geosystems in Western Siberia and the Elbrus Mountain vicinities were revealed using the large amount of dendrochronological data. The synchronism of growth rates was calculated for different time intervals both within the dominant facies and between them, thus providing for the evaluation of dynamics of landscape functioning. Well-defined spatial-temporal organization was identified for the northern part of Western Siberia, while in the Elbrus Mountain vicinities actual timber line does not reach its climatic limit.
Theoretic issues of intellectual capital and intellectual potential are discussed, as well as their understanding by different researchers. Application of intellectual potential concept for urban studies is described in detail. Selection criteria and parameters are suggested to identify towns and settlements which have already become intellectual centers. Searching of naturally and economically favorable locations providing for good urban environment is discussed. Measures, aimed at the improvement of intellectual potential and its efficient realization, are suggested in the context of general strategy of innovation policy implementation.
Transition to mass higher education in Russia is accompanied by significant changes in its availability. Territorial aspect of this availability is the most spatially pronounced and less investigated, in social geography as well. The Northern Caucasus with its relatively favorable demographic structure of population as compared to the rest of Russia is experiencing the profound growth in the availability of higher education. In recent 15 years the number of higher schools has increased almost 7 times (from 11 to 75) and their spatial density is now 10 times the Russian average. In 2007 90% of population of the Northern Caucasus lived within daily distance from higher schools providing mass and prestigious higher education (in law and economics, for example). The regions with overconcentration of higher education institutions have been identified which require reduction in higher schools numbers, and possible ways of solving the problem are discussed.
Geography of crime is described in its evolution, some methodical aspects are discussed. Geographical features of crime in Russia in general, as well as murders, attempted murders and infliction of bodily injuries, are analyzed for the period of 1990-2003.
Meandering is the main morphodynamic type of the lower Don River channel. It is widespread due to favorable geological and geomorphologic factors and specific features of channel-forming water flow. Meandering is more common to the upstream part of the lower Don River where the best-developed and sharpest meanders occur. The near-delta reaches are more linear-oriented, with young and gentle meanders and rather stable channel. A lot of by-channels are typical for the river floodplain.
- Kuznetsova E.I. Juniper forests and woodlands of the Abrau Peninsula (the North-Western Caucasus) .
Actual problems of the relic xerophyte Mediterranean forests and woodlands of the Abrau Peninsula are discussed. Main groups of associations of juniper cenoses are described basing on the 11 years of studies carried by the author. At present juniper forests and woodlands are expected to severe anthropogenic pressure. In order to protect these unique cenoses a natural reserve should be established within the Abrau Peninsula territory.
History of science