To the centenary of the birth of I.P.Zarutskaya
Global and regional changes of the natural environment
- Klige R.K., Malinin V.N., Shevchuk O.I. Fluctuations of the World Ocean level during the 20th century
The role of eustatic and steric factors in the inter-annual fluctuations of the World Ocean level (WOL) is discussed. The results of evaluation of the contribution of evaporation, precipitation, iceberg discharge and sea water density changes to the WOL rise during different periods of time are presented. The disparity between actual and calculated trends of the WOL is significant, thus a considerably higher accuracy is needed for the calculation of components of the global water balance.
The scope and age of three stages of the Mangyshlak (Early Holocene) regression of the Caspian Sea were studied basing on the analysis of the structure of bottom sediments within the outer part of the Eastern Caspian shelf. The corresponding sea levels were about -50, -70 and -90 m BS. The whole Mangyshlak regression took place between 8.5 and 10 thousand years BP. Radiocarbon dating of mollusk shells has shown that its second stage dates back to 9.3 thousand years. It was concluded that the transition from the maximum regression stage (-90 m) to rather high-water stage in the beginning of the New-Caspian age had been very rapid if not catastrophic.
Geography and ecology
The article deals with the factors governing the transformation of environmental and economic image of the towns of Russia during the period of economic growth. Deviation of actual pollution levels and their dynamics from the level which corresponds to the sector structure of industry was modeled and the role of economic changes, geographic position, size of a town and modern institutional factors was evaluated. The analysis of factors influencing the dynamics of the anthropogenic impact during the period of economic growth makes it possible to suggest recommendations on more efficient and environmentally favorable urban growth.
Kasimov N.S., Gavrilova I.P., Gerasimova M.I., Bogdanova M.D. New landscape-geochemical map of Russia.
Principles of mapping and the content of basic small-scale landscape-geochemical maps of the world and the former USSR are discussed. A new landscape-geochemical map of Russia elaborated for the National Atlas is described in terms of the content, parameters, methods of compilation and the legend features. The map shows three principal characteristics of geochemical landscapes, i.e. zonal type (which determines the migration situations), migration geochemical structure and landscape-geochemical processes. Each characteristic reflects an aspect of a geochemical landscape functioning; they are represented on the map by particular information layers. From this position the parameters of landscape components, such as climate, relief, soil, rock, vegetation and underground water (to a certain extent), were interpreted in terms of their role in the geochemical processes of material migration. The map is of fundamental scientific importance and can be used for a wide variety of applications, environmental forecasting and monitoring among them.
Methods of geographical studies
The notions of the natural potential of territories (common to the geography of natural resources) and the natural potential of landscapes (suggested within the applied landscape science) are compared. Possible applications of the landscape approach in resource-oriented geographical investigations are analyzed. A concept of integrated assessment of landscapes on the basis of their natural potential which combines natural-resource potential, environmental potential and landscape sustainability potential is suggested. Within the model region (the Buryat Republic) 29 natural-resource areas were identified which belong to five types according to the possibilities of economic activities.
The article deals with political-geographical aspects of secessionism phenomenon. The importance of secessionism studies is argued and the main lines of investigations are reviewed. Both new interpretation of secessionism as a political-geographical phenomenon and the original notion of the zone of secessionism expansion (ZSE) are suggested. Two integral evaluation parameters, i.e. integrating force and exterior form, which characterize the phenomenon in terms of genesis and forms of further evolution and provide for ZSE classification, are described. New geographical typology of ZSE is suggested and three ZSE types are described.
Backup phenomena at the conjunction of Sukhona and Yug rivers were studied using one- and two-dimension hydrodynamic models of water flow. The distance of backwater extension, changes in water level, flow rates and floodplain inundation areas due to backup phenomena under different hydrological situations were calculated and the analysis of results was carried out.